OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Význam vzdelania a študijných ciest v rode Pálffyovcov v 16. – 17. storočí
(The importance of education and study tours in the Pálffy family in the 16th-17th centuries)
The aim of the study is to present the aims, content, course and results of foreign study tours by aristocrats from the Kingdom of Hungary in the early modern period, specifically in the case of the representatives of the Pálffy family. The parents of young aristocrats expended considerable financial resources so that their offspring could be educated in the best schools at home, and could later go on tours of foreign countries. The most popular destinations for Hungarian noblemen were usually Germany and Italy. Only the richest could afford a Grand Tour according to foreign examples, involving travel through various countries and education at so-called knight’s academies. Young men aiming at a church career studied theology at leading theology faculties, among which the most famous and prestigious was the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum in Rome.
Aristocracy of Hungary in the 16th-17th centuries. Upbringing and education of noblemen. Foreign study tours. Kavalierstour and Grand Tour – the “travelling court” of the aristocrat. Paternal instruction. Financing of travel. Knight’s academies.
Študenti, obchodníci, obchodní cestujúci a remeselnícki tovariši pod drobnohľadom habsburskej pasovej politiky v rokoch 1815 – 1848
(Students, businessmen, commercial travellers and craftsmen under the scrutiny of Habsburg passport policy in the period 1815-1848)
This study is concerned with the analysis and interpretation of Habsburg policy on passports and foreign visitors in relation to four specific groups. It enables us to penetrate into the “everyday” struggle of the Austrian police to preserve the status quo in the Habsburg Monarchy in the period of formation of the ideologies of liberalism, nationalism and communism. Thorough verification of people entering the territory of the Austrian Empire, careful investigation of all possible “harmful” influences from which it was necessary to protect the population, “hermetic” closure of frontiers on one side, and the economic pressures of international co-operation, development of intellectual culture, national movements, bureaucratization with typical “holes in the laws” and expressions of official sloppiness on the other, represent the main limits within which Austrian passport policy moved in the first half of the 19th century.
History of the Habsburg Monarchy. History of policy on passports and foreigners. Vormärz period. Commis voyageurs.
Vojenský zásah ústrednej vlády na Slovensku 9. – 11. marca 1939
(The military intervention of the central government in Slovakia, 9-11 March 1939)
The military intervention of the Prague central government in Slovakia during the days from 9 to 11 March 1939 was intended to prevent the internal disintegration of Czecho-Slovakia. It would achieve this by replacing the autonomous government of J. Tiso and limiting the separatist tendencies of the radical members of Hlinka’s Slovak People’s Party and the para-military Hlinka Guard. However, the military coup was not thoroughly prepared from the military, political or propaganda points of view. After the initial successes of the Czech gendarmes, who penetrated into Slovakia on the evening of 9 March, the Hlinka Guard began to organize resis-tance and present the coup as an attempt to reverse the results of the Act on the Autonomy of the Slovak Region from 2 November 1938 and return to the centralist regime in Slovakia. In the struggle for public opinion, the Prague government could not convince the public about its intentions, and pressure from the People’s Party and Hlinka Guard forced it to hand over power to the political representatives of the Slovak region on the afternoon of 11 March. During the evening of 11 March President E. Hácha appointed K. Sidor as the new premier of the autonomous government. Sidor began the work of political consolidation. He enforced the release of imprisoned members of the Hlinka Guard and representatives of the People’s Party. He also forced the government in Prague to make various political concessions, which increased the legal powers of the autonomous government in Bratislava. The military intervention in Slovakia worsened relations between the Czechs and Slovaks. Adolf Hitler used the situation to achieve the internal break up of the republic. Berlin unambiguously supported the demand for the creation of a Slovak state. The Parliament of the Slovak Region declared an independent state on 14 March 1939. This began the process of internal disintegration of Czecho-Slovakia, which led to the occupation of Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia by Hungary and the occupation of Bohemia and Moravia by Nazi Germany on 15 March.
Hlinka’s Slovak People’s Party. Hlinka Guard. Central government in Prague. Autonomous government in Bratislava. Military intervention of Czech gendarme and army units in Slovakia. Origin of the Slovak state. Occupation of the Bohemia and Moravia by Nazi Germany.
Rokovania nacistického Nemecka o deportáciách Židov v roku 1942 – príklad Slovenska, Rumunska a Maďarska
(The discussions of Nazi Germany on the deportation of Jews in 1942 – the examples of Slovakia, Rumania and Hungary)
The study is an attempt to compare the discussions and resulting deportations of Jews in individual states. Nazi Germany asked more or less the same questions in these discussions, but the three states reacted differently to the possibility to deport their Jews, in spite of their home-grown policies of anti-Semitism. The rejection of deportation at this time by Rumania and Hungary did not result in the political elites of these countries losing power. Quiet collaboration of the individual countries, economic cooperation, especially in the armaments industry, and sending of military units to the Eastern Front, were much more important for Nazi Germany than the deportation of Jews.
The Holocaust. Deportation. Slovakia. Hungary. Rumania.
Ministr zahraničních věcí Vladimír Clementis, jeho úřad a jeho diplomaté
(Minister of foreign affairs Vladimír Clementis, his office and his diplomats (A contribution to the problem of the formation of the diplomacy of communist Czechoslovakia in the period 1948-1949))
The study is concerned with the activities of Vladimír Clementis (1901-1952) in directing the diplomacy of Czechoslovakia, especially in the role of foreign minister in the period 1948-1950. As head of Prague diplomacy after the communist coup of February 1948, Clementis, a leftist intellectual and “undogmatic” communist, still attempted to achieve some degree of autonomy in the foreign policy of people’s democratic Czechoslovakia. However, the growing Cold War between the Soviet Union and the West reduced the space for such a policy almost to zero. The views of Moscow became the deciding factor for the diplomatic activity of Czechoslovakia, and the majority of specific steps, including the appointment of personnel to the Prague diplomatic apparatus, were not decided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, but by the apparatus of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. In February 1949, Clementis was forced to introduce a radical reorganization of his office according to the model of the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which gave the Prague foreign ministry roughly the organizational structure it retained for the whole 40 year duration of the regime. In relation to the overall development of world politics, Clementis had to give up most of his more independent positions. However, pressure from the “Stalinists” led by V. Široký, led to him being deprived of his post in March 1950 and replaced by Široký himself. In 1952, Clementis fell victim to a fabricated political trial.
Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovak diplomacy. International relations at the beginning of the Cold War. Communist / Stalinist regimes and repression.
ARCHÍV / ARCHIVES
BAKA Igor – TULKISOVÁ Jana
Vstup Slovenskej republiky do vojny proti ZSSR v dokumentoch nemeckej proveniencie
(The entry of the Slovak Republic into the war against the USSR in documents of German origin)
In connection with analysis of the entry of the Slovak Republic (SR) into the war against the USSR as an ally of Nazi Germany, some documents from the German Foreign Office are already known. They enable us to trace German ideas about the role of the SR in the war, as well as the degree of willingness of the Slovak government to participate in the attack. However, military documents, especially reports of the German Military Mission in Slovakia and the German military attaché in Bratislava, are also important for analysis of the position of the Slovak army in the first days of the war. Information about the ideas of the Wehrmacht in connection with use of the Slovak army and the territory of the SR in the war can be found in them. They also enable us to trace the reactions of the Slovak side. The authors present a total of 18 German documents of political and military origin. The published texts shed light on the question of to what degree the military participation of Slovakia in the aggression was enforced and to what degree it was an expression of the initiative the Slovak side. Analysis of the documents clearly shows that, from the German point of view, the entry of Slovakia into the war occurred without complications. The initiative of the Slovak side is stated in various declarations. This can be traced in the case of the prime minister V. Tuka in relation to the act of Slovakia entering the war, but also in the decision making about the character of the participation of the Slovak army in the campaign from the side of its leadership headed by the minister of national defence and first class general Ferdinand Čatloš. Paradoxically, according to German military sources, the exaggerated Slovak activity in the area of deployment of Slovak units threatened the productivity of armaments companies working for the Reich.
Slovak Republic 1939-1945. War against the USSR. Documents
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
O pôvode a význame slov ves, dedina, mesto
(On the origin and meaning of the words: ves, dedina, mesto)
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
LETZ Róbert – MULÍK Peter a kol., Pohľady na osobnosť Andreja Hlinku (Roman Holec) S. 583
HUSSON Edouard, Heydrich et la solution finale (Lucia Galibert) S. 588
HLAVINKA Ján – NIŽŇANSKÝ Eduard, Pracovný a koncentračný tábor v Seredi 1941 – 1945 (Ľudovít Hallon) S. 592
LABISCHOVÁ Denisa – GRACOVÁ Blažena, Příručka ke studiu didaktiky dějepisu (Július Alberty) S. 594
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK