Year: 2011, vol: 59, number: 3
OBSAH / CONTENTS
STÚDIE / ARTICLES
Mikuláš zo Sečian a Salgó – výnimočný muž na dvore Žigmunda Luxemburského (Príspevok k dvorskej kultúre a fungovaniu uhorského kráľovského dvora na začiatku 15. storočia)
(Nicholas of Szécsény and Salgó – an exceptional man at the court of Sigismund of Luxembourg (A contribution to the court culture and functioning of the court of the King of Hungary at the beginning of the 15th century))
The study is a reconstruction of the life of a Hungarian magnate active at the Hungarian court of Sigismund of Luxembourg, Nicholas of Szécsény and Salgó. It is also a sounding into life at the court of the King of Hungary. As a result of his eccentric and exceptional character Nicholas of Salgó became a victim of the hatred of some of Sigismund’s courtiers. This led to a plot, due to which he was condemned and exiled from Hungary. He spent the last years of his life in Venice. The documents in the Venetian archives concerning Nicholas’ possessions, which were not studied up to now, provide substantial additional evidence on the Venetian exile of this Hungarian baron, his eccentric way of life and exceptional education.
Hungarian nobility, royal court, Sigismund of Luxembourg, medieval aristocratic libraries, lifestyle of a medieval nobleman, slaves in the Middle Ages, lovers and concubines.
Nepotizmus v správe Liptovskej stolice v 18. storočí
(Nepotism in the administration of the County of Liptov in the 18th century)
The study presents the results of a new form of research on the official elites in the counties at the time of great changes in the role of county administrations in the 18th century. Evidence of the process of building nepotism comes from uncovering the family backgrounds of members of the Liptov official elite on the basis of registers and genealogical tables. Thus, the study adds a new dimension to the, at first sight, uninteresting lists of members of the county administration. There was a dense network of blood and “spiritual” kinship ties in the background of the selection of elected officials. They started with the richest and most influential Liptov families: Okolicsány and Szent-Ivány, members of which were elected to the position of deputy sheriff. Both families relied on help from the sheriff from the Illésházy family, who appointed officials if one died or suddenly resigned from his position.
Ideological currents in the Kingdom of Hungary in the 19th century. Hungarus consciousness. Nationalism. The nationality question in the Kingdom of Hungary and various proposals for solving it. Multi-lingualism versus language as the basic attribute of the nation.
SECHEL Theodora Daniela
Zdravotná polícia a medicínske teórie v dielach uhorských lekárov (1770 – 1830)
(Health policy and medical theory in the works of Hungarian physicians (1770 – 1830))
In the last decades of the 18th century, physicians in Hungary and Transylvania emphasized direct contagion as the main way of plague transmission. The region with the common borders between Wallachia, Moldavia, Serbia and indirectly, with the Ottoman Empire was considered a reservoir for plague. A. Chenot’s and F. Schraud’s most important contribution to knowledge and prophylaxis of plague was the recognition of the connection between movement of population and the transmission of the disease. Thus the medical discours over contagion drew the attention to both preventive and policing methods in order to eradicate the epidemics. Medical police practices reveal the complex interplay among the economy, politics, and medicine. Moreover, the direct contagion theory suited the police regime developed by Francis I as a consequence of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. The experience of many epidemics legitimized the strengthening of a military cordon on the border as well as the introduction of draconian punishments, including the death penalty, the control of travelers, correspondence, and public meetings.
Ve státním zájmu? Státní podniky v meziválečném Československu
(In the State Interest? State enterprises in inter-war Czechoslovakia)
The study is directed towards the problem of the functioning of state enterprises in inter-war Czechoslovakia, their theoretical basis, economic situation and position in the state economy. The study considers the state enterprises from the point of view of their functions, as one of many expressions of the relationship between various institutions in the economic and political system. Widening of the state enterprises represented an unprecedented source of political capital. The state enter-prises of inter-war Czechoslovakia can be described as unambiguous proof of the growing intervention of the state into the private sphere, and strengthening of the mixed economy model.
Komunistická strana Slovenska 1945 – 1948. Členstvo, organizácia, vedenie, stranícky aparát, vzťah ku KSČ
(The Communist Party of Slovakia 1945 – 1948. Membership, organization, leadership, party apparatus, relationship to the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia)
The Communist Party of Slovakia (CPS) formed in May 1939, became a government party in spring 1945. Its membership base grew rapidly, reaching almost 200,000 by the end of 1945. After re-registration of members and party screening at the end of 1945 and beginning of 1946, the party had about 150,000 members in the middle of 1946, but their number was again approaching 200,000 at the time of the February coup of 1948. The organizational structure of the CPS comprised four parts. The first was the local or village organizations, the second was the district organizations in all 80 districts, and the third was the 11 regional organizations. The fourth and highest part was the leadership of the CPS, that is the Central Committee and associated bodies. The CPS had a professional party apparatus. It was not very numerous, with perhaps 200 functionaries from the districts to the centre. This number increased only slightly up to February 1948. After the liberation, the central figures in the leadership of the CPS were Karol Šmidke and Gustáv Husák. This leadership was removed at the national conference of the CPS at Žilina in August 1945. Viliam Široký became chairman of the party, and Štefan Bašťovanský became general secretary. The CPS was formally an independent political party, but it worked in unity with the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, active in the Czech Lands, and was subordinate to its political line.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Klement Literát Beczenczy (a archontológia zástupcov palatínskych miestodržiteľov)
(Klement Literát Beczenczy and archontology of the deputies of the palatine governors)
The study publishes the archontology of the deputies of the palatine governors (governors of the office of Hungarian Palatine), officials active in the Kingdom of Hungary in the period 1542 – 1608. The author initially identified 9 men, who held this office. One of them, Klement Literát Beczenczy is presented as an example in a detailed biographical and genealogical account.
Osudy pamiatok pochádzajúcich zo židovského majetku za druhej svetovej vojny
(The fate of objects of artistic or historic interest owned by Jews during the Second World War)
The study is the first contribution to tracing the fate of objects of artistic or historic interest derived from the confiscated property of Jews during the so-called Slovak state. The Ministry of Education and National Enlightenment, which was responsible for monument protection at the time, strove for the transfer of objects of artistic or historic interest from Jewish owners to museums. However, the Ministry of Finance frustrated its ambitions by demanding the unconditional sale of these valuable objects. The Ministry of Education secured the assessment of Jewish possessions with artistic or historic value and compilation of a list of objects to be bought, but the Ministry of Finance did not agree. The study traces the steps of individual ministries in dealing with objects of artistic, scientific or historic value owned by Jews.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
BERNÁT Libor, Obyvateľstvo dubnickej farnosti v 17. – 19. storočí vo svetle matrík (Eva Frimmová) S. 535
Trojuholníky vo francúzskej politike bezpečnosti (Bohumila Ferenčuhová) S. 537
TISO Jozef, Prejavy a články. Zv. I., II., III. (Milan Zemko) S. 545
ŠTVERÁK František, Schematismus k dějinám Komunistické strany Československa (Jan Pešek) S. 549
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK