OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Prešovská administrácia Hospodárskej rady počas povstania Františka II. Rákócziho 1707 – 1711
(The Activity of the Economic Council in Prešov during the Uprising of Francis II Rákóczi 1707 – 1711)
The paper is concerned with the activity of the Economic Council (Consilium Oeconomicum) at Prešov. It was the highest body for economic administration in the part of the Kingdom of Hungary controlled by the Uprising of Francis II Rákóczi. It was established by a decision of parliament at Ónod in 1707, and gradually took over most of the responsibilities of a previously united office. The study deals with the main tasks of the administration, its activities, fulfilment of functions in relation to the state, its apparatus and the army, relationship to the prince, senate and leading representatives of the country, development of the personal composition of the council, which was also the highest representative body of the county nobility on the state level, responsibilities within the office and the institutions subordinate to it, especially the offices for collecting thirtieths and the administration of the chamber lordships. The council’s work is traced on the basis of archive documents up to the end of its activity at the end of 1710, when it lost the ability to fulfil its role as a result of a plague epidemic, advance of hostile armies and the general breakdown of the economy. The Court Economic Council took over the function of the highest office for economic administration in the Kingdom of Hungary.
Consilium Oeconomicum. Economic Council. Administration. Office. Economy. Chamber lordships. Confiscation. Supply. Officials. Thirtieths. Army.
HOLEC Roman – BOVAN Marián
Slovenský lokaj na viedenskom dvore a jeho virtuálny život v maďarskej politike a kultúre
(A Slovak Servant at the Vienna Court and his Virtual Life in Hungarian Politics and Culture)
Anton Szmolen (1856 – 1939) worked as a servant at the Vienna court of the Emperor Franz Joseph from 1894 to 1910. Therefore, his manuscript memoirs are a remarkable source of information on how a Slovak came into immediate proxi-mity to the monarch and his family, and how he remained loyal practically until his death. No less interesting is the mystification around this person, which made Szmolen’s memoirs an excellent example of manipulation and distortion, which he even believed himself to some extent. Even more interesting than his military and court career is the virtual life of Anton Szmolen. In the 20th century Hungarian political and intellectual discourse, his name became a symbol of Vienna, the hated court clique and its arrogance. He appeared in this function in caricatures in humorous magazines, in the theatre, songs and parliament. The Emperor and Vienna were indirectly attacked through Szmolen. This symbol also survived beyond the period of Szmolen’s service and even the fall of the Monarchy. Szmolen’s name was gradually transformed and acquired a wider meaning as a symbol of treason, lackeyism and service to foreign powers. It was used with this meaning even in the recent past.
Austria-Hungary. The Imperial court in the period of Dualism. The name of a person as the symbol of an institution up to 1918 and of negative properties in the whole 20th century.
Hospodárska politika a banské záujmové organizácie na Slovensku do roku 1929
(Economic Policy and Mining Interest Organizations in Slovakia up to 1929)
The author maps the activities of mining interest organizations in Slovakia up to 1929. The Union of Mining and Foundry Enterprises (Zväz banských a hutníckych závodov) associated only private companies and membership was only voluntary. The union fully developed its activities after 1921, and engaged in many economic, political and social questions. In the process of reforming the fraternal savings banks (bratské pokladnice), the need to more closely cooperate with the state-owned mines emerged. This led to the formation of a new interest group in 1926: the Slovak Mining Region (Slovenský banský revír). Since membership of this corporation was already compulsory, its influence on the development of economic policy increased, especially after 1929. The agenda of the banking interest organizations strongly reflects all the problems, with which the extractive industry in Slovakia had to struggle in the period of the first Czechoslovak Republic.
Mining interest organizations. Union of Mining and Foundry Enterprises. Slovak Mining Region.
Združenie vysokoškolského študentstva ako výsledok núteného zjednocovacieho procesu spoločensko-politického života v Bratislave v rokoch 1942 – 1945
(The Association of University Students as a Result of the Centralization of Academic Society Life in Bratislava in the Period 1942 – 1945)
The study presents entirely new findings connected with the united student orga-nization created on the basis of legislation in May 1942. The facts are presented in a logical way in an effort to deal with the origin and activity of the organization, which was formed in the disturbed period of the war. While researching his dissertation, the author discovered new facts, which have not been presented to such an extent by previous historians. These new findings were obtained mainly from detailed study of student periodicals published in the period 1942 – 1945, and from detailed archive research. Therefore, the study presents new materials from historical research on a period so much studied by several generations of trained professions and ordinary lay people.
Slovakia 1942 – 1945. Bratislava. Student organization. Academic Society Life.
K hospodářským vztahům mezi Československem a Čínskou lidovou republikou po nástupu Teng Siao-pchingova reformního vedení
(Economic Relations between Czechoslovakia and the People’s Republic of China after Deng Xiaoping’s Reformist Leadership Came to Power)
In the 1980s, Czechoslovakia essentially succeeded in using the reform process and emerging economic boom in the People’s Republic of China to widen mutual trade relations. On the other side, the Beijing government did not hinder the more rapid development, especially at a time, when it was forced to confront a growing trade deficit and shortage of foreign currency for buying from the developed democratic states. However, the boom in Czechoslovak – Chinese trade should not be overestimated and its effects may not have been unambiguously positive. Mutual trade was stimulated by some non-economic factors, and from a purely economic point of view, it was at least questionable.
China. Czechoslovakia. International trade in the period 1979 – 1989. Deng Xiaoping.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Termín „mestský hrad“ vo vybraných stredovekých mestách na území Slovenska
(The Concept of Town Castles in Selected Medieval Slovak Mining Towns)
The article aims to explore the concept of town castle in primary and secondary sources. It focuses on selected central Slovak mining towns (Banská Štiavnica, Banská Bystrica, Kremnica, Ľubietová). Among other towns, it notes the town castles of Krupina, Gelnica and Kežmarok. The medieval castle is a stone fortification building, which began to be constructed from the early 12th century in the Kingdom of Hungary. Castles were built by monarchs, secular and ecclesiastical feudal lords. They were built at river fords, crossroads of trade routes and toll houses. Castles or fortified sites are mentioned in the sources as castrum, fortalitium, castellum, arx or munitio, in German Burg. The first type of town castles were the tower houses in Banská Štiavnica Old Town (also known as Glanzenberg) at Gelnica dated to 12th and 13th century. Originally they both served as royal residences. In Glanzenberg the tower house was rebuilt as a town castle by the townspeople during the Turkish threat. The tower house in Gelnica (later a royal castle as well) became an estate of some noble families but finally disappeared in the 17th century. This type includes the town defensive fortifications built by the Hussite commander Jiskra of Brandýs in Krupina and the castle in Kežmarok. The second type was a fortified parish church type (dy Kirche) of Banská Štiavnica, Banská Bystrica, Ľubietová, Dobrá Niva and Kremnica. The importance of the church is evident from the payment records. For the townspeople the church was the fundamental building within the fortification. The name for this kind of town castle is therefore fortified parish church.
Mining towns. Medieval castle. Town castle. Residential towers. Fortification building.
Návrh federalizácie habsburskej monarchie v diele Spojené štáty Veľkého Rakúska od Aurela Popoviciho
(The Proposed Federalization of the Habsburg Monarchy in the Work The United States of Greater Austria by Aurel C. Popovici)
The study analyses the proposal to federalize the Monarchy contained in the work The United States of Greater Austria (1906). Its author was a political representative of the Transylvanian Rumanians in the Kingdom of Hungary, Aurel C. Popovici (1863 – 1917). His work appeared in a period of crisis for the Monarchy and represented a proposal for its solution by means of constitutional reform. Popovici proposed the formation of 15 federal states headed by the Emperor and central government in Vienna. This proposal is analysed in the study in the wider context of the political situation in the Habsburg Monarchy. As a comparative framework for the interpretation of Popovici’s ideas, the study also analyses the thinking of the Austro-Marxists, specifically K. Renner and O. Bauer. They were working on projects to reform the Monarchy at the same time. Aurel C. Popovici.
Austria-Hungary. Beginning of the 20th century. Reform proposals. Federalization. Austro-Marxists.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Historiografia v Historickom ústave SAV v roku 2010
(Historiography at the Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in 2010)
The study is concerned with the problem of historiography at Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in 2010. The publication activity of the institute in that year was rich and extensive. A wide range of works appeared, representing almost all periods of history. They amount to about 40 monographs, syntheses, editions of sources, encyclopedic works and dictionaries, about ten vo-lumes of papers and numerous scientific and expert studies and articles in domestic and foreign periodicals. The staff of the institute published their most important work as results of scientific projects financially supported by grant agencies, especially the Centre for Excellence of the SAS (CEVKOMSD), Agency for Research and Development (APVV) and Vega, in notable domestic and foreign publishing houses: Veda vydavateľstvo SAV, Prodama, Pro História, Cambridge University Press and others. The content of the publications is varied. Themes from politics, economics and culture predominate, but problems from social and religious history are also frequent. Two especially remarkable scientific works need to be emphasized among the numerous publications of expert historical literature. The first is an impressive work of encyclopedic character: Lexikon stredovekých miest (Lexicon of Medieval Towns), written by a team of medievalists from the Institute under the leadership of Martin Štefánik and Ján Lukačka. The work is an original project not only in the context of Slovak but also of Central European medieval studies. The second is the publication: Slovakia in History, which represents the first important synthesis of Slovak history written in the English language mostly by Slovak authors. The conception of the work was prepared by Dušan Kováč in cooperation with Mikuláš Teich and Cambridge University. In 2010 the Institute of History of the SAS published or participated in publishing various important scientific and popular periodicals: Historický časopis, Forum Historiae, Historické štúdie, História – revue o dejinách spoločnosti, Human Affairs. The staff of the institute regularly provided scientific studies, articles, reviews and discussions for these periodicals.
Historiography. Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. Slovakia. Scientific research. Grant tasks.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
RUSINA Ivan a kol., Renesancia. Umenie medzi neskorou gotikou a barokom (Zuzana Dzurňáková) S. 537
BROWNING, R. Christopher, Les origines de la solution finale. L´évolution de la politique antijuive des nazis septembre 1939-mars 1942 (Lucia Galibert) S. 542
ŽIAK Miloš – SNOPKO Ladislav – NIŽŇANSKÝ Eduard – KRAJMEROVÁ Eva (eds.), Park ušľachtilých duší. 1 – 4 (Ľudovít Hallon) S. 545
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK