OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
„Cuiuscumque nationis homines, Saxones videlicet, Hungarii, Sclaui seu alii.“ Odraz etnicity v normách a úradných dokumentoch stredovekého Uhorska
(„Cuiuscumque nationis homines, Saxones videlicet, Hungarii, Sclaui seu alii.“ Reflection of ethnicity in the legal norms and official documents of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary)
The study is concerned with the question of the existence of nations in the Kingdom of Hungary especially in the Middle Ages and mainly on the basis of legal norms and official documents. Therefore, it considers the relationship between the Natio Hungarica and the other nations, as well as the terms populus, natio and gens. The study also asks how long this “medieval” model of the relationship of the country and nations persisted, and which substantial social changes played a role in the context of the origin and changes of the concept of the nations of the Kingdom of Hungary.
nation, natio, gens, populus, Kingdom of Hungary, ethnicity
Výsadný a samovoľný rozvoj meštianstva a miest na Slovensku v 14. storočí
(Privileged and spontaneous development of burghers and towns in 14th century Slovakia)
In this study, the author presents his findings on the development of burghers and towns in 14th century Slovakia. It continues his research and publication on the development of burghers and towns from the 9th century. The sources of evidence are charters from the 14th century. The author has researched the development of the burgher class in dozens of towns of the period. He has come to the conclusion that burghers developed in two ways, namely: privileged, on the basis of charters; or spontaneously without any written documents. This was how groups of burghers developed in dozens of old towns and an even larger number of new towns in 14th century Slovakia. The most profitable employment of the burghers was trade. The most developed urban life was found in Košice and Bratislava, which were two of the most important towns in the Kingdom of Hungary in the 14th century.
Slovakia, history, Middle Ages, burghers
Pamäť a oslavy storočníc „génia národa“, „najväčšieho Maďara“ a „mudrca vlasti“ v mestách Zvolenskej, Novohradskej a Gemersko-malohontskej župy
(Memory and celebrations of the centenaries of the “Genius of the Nation”, “Greatest Hungarian” and “Wiseman of the Homeland” in the towns of the counties of Zvolen, Novohrad and Gemer-Malohont)
In the period of formation of modern nations, celebrations of a political character served as media and formative instruments for collective or national historical memory. This study is directed towards specific celebrations – for the centenaries of three Hungarian statesmen: Lajos Kossuth (1902), István Széchenyi (1891) and Ferenc Deák (1903). It looks at the places of memory in two or three different ethno-linguistic micro-spaces, and in the public space of the counties of Zvolen (Banská Bystrica, Zvolen), Novohrad (Lučenec) and Gemer-Malohont (Rimavská Sobota). By reconstructing their ritual symbolic aspect and the associated attitudes, ideas and values, it uncovers the aim of such undertakings and the functions and forms of historical memory.
Lajos Kossuth, István Széchenyi, Ferenc Deák, historical memory, celebrations
Vplyv Nemecka na kapitálové presuny v poisťovníctve Slovenska 1939 – 1942
(The influence of Germany on capital transfers in the insurance business of Slovakia 1939 – 1942)
In the inter-war period, a structure of private insurance companies in which Czech insurance companies had the decisive influence, developed in Slovakia. In the years of existence of the independent Slovak Republic of 1939 – 1945, Slovak national capital with government support made a great effort to gain control of the insurance market, mainly at the expense of insurance companies in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. However, the representatives of Reich German insurance companies began a process of capital expansion and demanded a share in the insurance market of the new state. After complex Slovak – German talks, a compromise agreement on division of the property of insurance companies was agreed in November 1940. However, both sides broke this agreement and there was another round of complex negotiations. The result was strengthening of the position of Slovak national capital and maintenance of the influence of the German insurance companies on the level of the end of the 1930s.
capital transfers, insurance business, Slovak Republic of 1939 – 1945
Sebeidentifikace, statistika a její interpretace – etnicky smíšená manželství, Jugoslávci a muslimská otázka v Bosně a Hercegovině v kontextu národnostní politiky socialistické Jugoslávie
(Self-identification, statistics and their interpretation – ethnically mixed marriages, Yugoslavs and the Moslem question in Bosnia-Herzegovina in the context of the nationality policy of socialist Yugoslavia)
The paper analyses the co-existence of the nations of Bosnia-Herzegovina in the context of the development of the nationality policy of socialist Yugoslavia. Its aim is to explain some of the key aspects involved in shaping the varied mosaic of the multi-ethnic environment of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The study analyses how far the number of ethnically mixed marriages corresponded to the high level of ethnic heterogeneity. It considers the degree to which the Bosnian population identified with the non-national Yugoslav category and how this was reflected in the ethnic composition of the country. The conclusion of the text is devoted to the development of the Moslem question and the affirmation of the Moslems as the sixth nation of Yugoslavia.
Bosnia-Herzegovina, ethnically mixed marriage, nationality policy, statistics
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Slovensko-poľský spor o inkorporované územia Spiša a Oravy v roku 1945
(The Slovak – Polish dispute on the incorporated territories of Spiš and Orava in 1945)
The study considers the Slovak – Polish dispute over the incorporated territories of Spiš and Orava, which acquired intensity in connection with the passage of the front through these regions and the revival of Czechoslovakia and Poland in the final months of the Second World War in Europe, and the associated creation of the frontier between them. It describes the efforts of the Slovak and Polish regional authorities to include the incorporated territories in Czechoslovakia or Poland, and it grasps the basic historical and geopolitical factors, which led to the final renewal of the Slovak part of the Czechoslovak – Polish frontier on its pre-Munich line. The problem is considered against the background of the regional development in the given regions and development of Czechoslovak – Polish relations in the first half of 1945.
Slovak – Polish territorial disputes, renewal of the frontiers in 1945, territories of Spiš and Orava
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Historiografia v Historickom ústave SAV v rokoch 2011 – 2012
(Historiography in the Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in 2011-2012)
The activity of the institute in the last two years was directed towards equal study of all periods of Slovak history and of selected problems of universal history. The centre of gravity of the research of the staff of the institute was concentrated on the fulfilment of tasks in the framework of domestic and international projects of basic and applied research with the financial support of scientific grant agencies: the Centre for Excellence of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the Slovak Research and Development Agency (APVV) and the Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic (VEGA). The results of this research were presented by our staff to the scientific and wider public, especially in the form of extensive lecture, teaching and publication activity. In the field of publication, the result is about 60 published scientific and expert monographs, syntheses, editions of sources and documents, about ten volumes of papers, five textbooks for elementary and secondary schools, five periodicals, as well as a multitude of scientific and expert studies and articles in domestic and foreign periodicals.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
F E D E L E S Tamás – K O S Z T A László, Pécs (Fünfkirchen) : Das Bistum und die Bischofsstadt im Mittelalter (Miriam Hlavačková, Ján Steinhübel) S. 569
Ethnic Minorities in Slovakia in the Years 1918 – 1945 : Survey. Martin Pekár et al (Martin Hetényi) S. 572
P E T R U F Pavol, Zahraničná politika Slovenskej republiky 1939 – 1945 (Dagmar Čierna-Lantayová) S. 576
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK