OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Neznámy text na plakete z Bojnej
(Unknown Text on a Plaque from Bojná)
The subject of the paper is the identification of an unknown text on an archaeological find – the gilded plaque No. 1 from the village of Bojná (West Slovakia). The text formed part of a portable altar and shrine from the end of the 9th century and its historical-linguistic analysis testifies to the fact that this inscription was most probably made in the vicinity of Nitra (West Slovakia), an important spiritual and cultural centre. This is proved by the first four Glagolitic graphemes of the inscription, the fifth grapheme being a testimony of the previous spiritual and cultural Latin tradition. The plaque from the village of Bojná is one of the oldest preserved records in the Glagolitic script and it is a proof of the existence and functioning of a liturgical language of Slavic origin. The linguistic means that have been preserved on the artefacts from the 9th century prove that already at that time the western part of contemporary Slovakia was a territory, which had important social, spiritual and cultural functions and constituted part of the area where Christianity, education and literacy were spreading.
Gilded plaque. Latin tradition. Glagolitic script. Liturgical language. Christianity. Cultural functions of West Slovakia.
JANURA Tomáš – ZVEDELOVÁ Kristína
Aristokratické rezidencie v Trenčianskej stolici na príklade kaštieľa v Tepličke nad Váhom
(The Manor House at Teplička nad Váhom as an Example of an Aristocratic Residence in the County of Trenčín)
The manor house (kaštieľ, castellum) at Teplička nad Váhom had an outstanding position for almost 30 years in the time of Stephen Dersffy and his sons Nicholas and Francis. After its completion, these aristocrats abandoned the hilltop castle of Strečno as their permanent residence. They did this in accordance with the trend of the time in the County of Trenčín, to build comfortable Renaissance manor houses with sufficiently impressive rooms. The Wesselenyi family enlarged the manor house to its present size. There was an extensive reconstruction in the Rococo spirit in the second half of the 18th century. The imperial aristocrat Joseph Windischgrätz gave the manor house a form fully corresponding to the trends of imperial Vienna. He showed that the architectural projects of the imperial aristocracy were among the most advanced in the Kingdom of Hungary.
Manor house. Dersffy family. Windischgrätz family. Teplička nad Vahom.
Remilitarizácia Rýnskej zóny 7.marca 1936 : Otázka hraníc a medzinárodnej bezpečnosti (aj) v strednej Európe
(The Re-Militarization of the Rhineland on 7 March 1936: A Question of Frontiers and International Security (also) in Central Europe)
The entry of 30,000 German soldiers into the demilitarized Rhineland was a violation of the Treaty of Versailles and of the Locarno agreements signed under the aegis of the League of Nations in 1925. The latter were understood as giving some degree of correction to Versailles. They included the Rhine Pact, which internationally guaranteed the inviolability of the French – German and French – Belgian frontiers, and of the demilitarized Rhineland. Locarno could not be unilaterally renounced. Therefore Hitler resorted to force, while the Western powers gave priority to diplomacy and an effort to prove that the Locarno agreements had not lost their legal force. Slovak historiography has not devoted much attention to the Rhineland crisis, although it had an unfortunate impact on the fate of Czechoslovakia and the whole of Central Europe. The study is directed mainly towards French policy. On the basis of research in the diplomatic and military archives, it considers the problem of the struggle between force and law. Law suffered a defeat in Europe in 1936.
Rhineland Crisis 1936. Frontiers. Collective security. Central Europe.
Komunistický intelektuál – víťaz i porazený hodnotového sporu v „medzičase“ pred komunistickou diktatúrou
(The Communist Intellectual – Winner and Loser in the Conflict over Values in the “Interval” before the Communist Dictatorship)
In this study authoress investigates Slovak literary life with an emphasis on literary journalism in the second half of the 20th century, and especially in the period 1945 – 1948, when the basic direction of Slovak and Czech society in the revived post-war Czechoslovakia was decided, and not only on the cultural, but chiefly on the socio-political level. On the cultural-political level, the heirs of the Czech and Slovak avant-gardes clashed with the forces of the traditional liberal and conservative right in the fields of social and artistic activity. The introductory part of the study is a sort of sounding into the past of inter-war Modernism, which was carried on a wave of revolutionary feeling, stimulated by an idealized idea of the liberating power of the Russian revolution. The author sees this period not only as an artistic phenomenon, but also in terms of the inter-connection of culture and politics. Culture, the home territory and autonomous field of the intellectual and the artist, could easily be manipulated when drawn into the political sphere. It could easily be ideologized under the pretext that it had to serve a higher aim, such as revival of the nation or the chosen class, especially after 1948, when it became the dominant state forming group.
Culture, both Czech and Slovak, had long been accustomed to a politicized function. The new individual and collective positions after 1945 further radicalized and petrified them. This helped communism to make itself at home in Czechoslovakia.
Intellectual, Artist, Art, Cultural history, Modernism, European Modernism,
Classic, Modern style, Inter-war culture, Nationalism, Class war, Artistic avant-garde, Leftist intellectual, Political engagement, National emancipation, Liberal and conservative right, “Literary” life, Slovak culture, “Directors” of culture.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Politika vs. história? Diskusie v slovenskej historiografii
(Politics versus History? Discussions in Slovak Historiography)
The study analyses historiographic discussions about themes which attract a lot of interest in the wider Slovak society. It is especially concerned with the use of the term “Old Slovaks”, the Act Honouring A. Hlinka and various so-called acts on memory. It points to gaps in argumentation, when historians did not use the same arguments in relation to similar problems. Although freedom of speech was frequently mentioned in relation to the Act Honouring A. Hlinka, it was forgotten or less strongly emphasized in the case of other similar legislation, some of it repressive. Similarly, use of the term “Old Slovaks” for the 10th century was said to show eternalization and premordialism, but this argument was not heard, when the term “Slovak” was used for the 12th century. The author explains this by the long-term polarization in Slovak historiography between the “main stream” and “nationally oriented” historians, which appears especially in public polemics concerned with national history. Although mainly younger historians are striving to get away from this bipolar division, their positions in public discussions give it more confirmation. In conclusion, he formulates the view that there is a difference between the political and scientific statements of historians, which could be useful in similar discussions.
Legislation on memory, Historiography, “Old Slovaks”, History, memory and politics, Collective memory, Appeal from Blois.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Osídlenie Žiarskej kotliny v stredoveku
(Settlement of the Žiarska Kotlina Basin in the Middle Ages)
The study is concerned with the development of settlement in the Žiarska Kotlina Basin, which is situated in the southern, middle part of the Hron Basin. The Žiarska Kotlina Basin is one of the oldest settled areas in Slovakia. It was already known in the Palaeolithic for its deposits of limno-quartzite. However, evidence of denser settlement comes only from the time of the Lusatian Cultural Complex. The Púchov Culture existed here in the Late Iron Age and Early Roman period. Germanic tribes came later in the Roman period and in the 6th century probably Slavs. The Žiarska Kotlina Basin was relatively densely settled in the 9th and 10th centuries, with settlements concentrated close to the river Hron. The first written mention of the territory dates from 1075. Svätý Beňadik (today Hronský Beňadik) Abbey gained properties here. We lack written mentions from the following, 12th century. However, the territory was not uninhabited. Svätý Kríž (today Žiar nad Hronom), Hliník and Voznica probably existed. The castle lordships of Revište and Šášov originated in the 13th century. We get our first evidence that the Archbishopric of Esztergom had property here. The majority of the settlements mentioned in written sources from the 14th and 15th centuries probably originated in the 13th century. The network of settlements still in existence today emerged at this time.
Slovakia. Settlement of the Žiarska Kotlina Basin. The Púchov Culture. The first written mention.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
VODRÁŽKA Mirek, Prolegomena k historiografii. Poznámky ke knize László Vöröse
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
DVOŘÁČKOVÁ-MALÁ Dana – ZELENKA Jan, Curia ducis, curia regis. Panovnický dvůr za vlády Přemyslovců (Pavol Hudáček) S. 133
LENGYELOVÁ Tünde a kol, Thurzovci a ich historický význam (Tomáš Janura) S. 138
KUŠNIRÁKOVÁ Ingrid a kol., „Vyjdeme v noci vo fakľovom sprievode a rozsvietime svet.“ Integračný a mobilizačný význam slávností v živote spoločnosti (Dušan Škvarna) S. 140
FERENČUHOVÁ Bohumila – ZEMKO Milan a kol., V medzivojnovom Československu 1918 – 1939 (Ivan Kamenec) S. 142
SEGEŠ Dušan – HERTEL Maroš – BYSTRICKÝ Valerián, Slovensko a slovenská otázka v poľských a maďarských diplomatických dokumentoch v rokoch 1938 – 1939 (Martin Vašš) S. 145
PEŠEK Jan, Komunistická strana Slovenska. Dejiny politického subjektu I. Na ceste k moci (1945 – 1948), pri moci – od prevratu k pokusu o reformu (1948 – 1960) (Stanislav Sikora) S. 148
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK