OBSAH / CONTENTS
The Legal Position of Widows in Medieval Hungary up to 1222 and the Question of Dower
In this study, the author is concerned with the position of widows in medieval society. He considers the development of basic ideas about their position on the basis of the decrees of Frankish synods and Early Medieval laws. The main part of the work is devoted to widows in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary during the earliest period from the 11th century to the issuing of the Golden Bull in 1222. The subject of this is the position of widows according to the individual points of the Hungarian law codes of St. Stephen, St. Ladislav and Koloman. The main question is the claim of widows to property and the gradual changes in this area up to the beginning of the 13th century. The main emphasis is placed on the search for the beginnings of the dowry as property, which the woman kept after the death of her husband. The study includes a detailed analysis of the wills of important women, widows, but also widowers. Evidence of the property rights of widows and the first indications of the existence of the dower are sought in these documents.
Medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Early medieval laws. Medieval property rights. Widows. Dower. Medieval wills. Important women.
“Cuiuscumque nationis homines, Saxones videlicet, Hungarii, Sclaui seu alii.” Ethnicity reflected in the Rules of Law and Official Documents of Medieval Hungary
The study is concerned with the question of the existence of nations in the Kingdom
of Hungary especially in the Middle Ages and mainly on the basis of legal norms and official documents. Therefore, it considers the relationship between the Natio Hungarica and the other nations, as well as the terms populus, natio and gens. The study also asks how long this “medieval” model of the relationship of the country and nations persisted, and which substantial social changes played a role in the context of the origin and changes of the concept of the nations of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Nation. Natio. Gens. Populus. Kingdom of Hungary. Ethnicity.
The Formation of the Czechoslovak Economy (1918 – 1920)
The Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed in October 1918. The new state united the Czech Lands, which had relatively well developed industry and agriculture, with backward mainly agrarian Slovakia. There were already ideas of territorial or political union of Slovakia and the Czech Lands in the period before the First World War. However, there was no definite “program” by which their economic unification could be more deeply considered. The need to work out a “program” to solve the problems connected with the adaptation of Slovakia and the Czech Lands to the new conditions in the economic field was not really felt even in the period immediately after the formation of the new state. The problems that began to appear in the running of the economy were mostly attributed to the transition from wartime conditions to peace, or to faults in the work of the bureaucracy. The post-war economic crisis brought a reversal of this view. The Slovak political representatives strove to use not only parliamentary, but also other means to pursue their demands. On the initiative of Slovak political circles, the activity of chambers of commerce and industry was revived, and the Central Association of Slovak Industry and various other institutions were established. However, their legal powers were limited, and so their activities were more or less limited to solving the current operational problems.
The Origin of Czechoslovakia. Unification of Slovakia with the Czech Lands. Economic Problems. the Post-War Economic Crisis.
The Influence of Germany on Capital Transfers in the Insurance Business of Slovakia 1939 – 1942
In the inter-war period, a structure of private insurance companies in which Czech insurance companies had the decisive influence, developed in Slovakia. In the years of existence of the independent Slovak Republic of 1939 – 1945, Slovak national capital with government support made a great effort to gain control of the insurance market, mainly at the expense of insurance companies in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. However, the representatives of Reich German insurance companies began a process of capital expansion and demanded a share in the insurance market of the new state. After complex Slovak – German talks, a compromise agreement on division of the property of insurance companies was agreed in November 1940. However, both sides broke this agreement and there was another round of complex negotiations. The result was strengthening of the position of Slovak national capital and maintenance of the influence of the German insurance companies on the level of the end of the 1930s.
Capital transfers. Insurance business. Slovak Republic of 1939 – 1945.
Viliam Široký and Július Ďuriš – Family Origin, Social Relations and Beginnings of their Work in the Communist Movement
Viliam Široký and Július Ďuriš, who lived in a nationally mixed environment, were convinced communists from their youth. The fact that they came from socially weak backgrounds also influenced their ideological orientation. Široký engaged in the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from its origin and quickly gained a place among the most important communist functionaries in Slovakia. As a result of his studies, Ďuriš only began his career as a professional revolutionary at the end of his twenties, but in this period he already showed his radicalism. From the beginning of their revolutionary activities, Široký and Ďuriš came into conflict with the state authorities and were forced to live in illegality for some time. During the internal party crisis around the turn of the years 1928-1929, they joined the group around Klement Gottwald and supported the so-called Bolshevization of the CPC. Široký later worked in the apparatus of the Communist Internationale. In 1935 he became a member of parliament. In the mid 1930s, Ďuriš became organizational secretary of the Regional Leadership of the CPC in Slovakia.
Family origin. Youth. Revolutionary movement. Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Viliam Široký. Július Ďuriš. Professional revolutionary. Illegality.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
DVOŘÁKOVÁ Daniela, Barbara of Cilly. The black queen. The life story of the Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia (1391 – 1451) (Ján Lukačka) S. 141
DUCHOŇOVÁ Diana, The Palatine Nicholas Esterházy and his Court. Society, norms, everyday rituals (Frederik Federmayer) S. 142
KOLLÁROVÁ Ivona, Free publisher, thinking reader. The typographic medium in the reign of Joseph II. (Tomáš Janura) S. 145
KOVÁČ Dušan at al., Soundings into Slovak history in the long 19th century (Elena Mannová) S. 147
MICHÁLEK Slavomír – LONDÁK Miroslav, Gustáv Husák. The power of politics. A politician of power (Ivan Kamenec) S. 152
LONDÁK Miroslav – MICHÁLEK Slavomír at al., Twenty years of the independent Slovak Republic. Singularity and discontinuity in historical development (Stanislav Sikora) S. 155
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK