Year: 2015, vol: 63, number: 5
OBSAH / CONTENTS
The image of the werewolf in medieval literature
The subject of the study is the transformation of humans into wolves in medieval chivalric romances, rhymed tales (lais), educational works, Norse sagas, Russian literature and Serbian folk songs. The medieval idea of a werewolf was anatomically an ordinary wolf, but it retained human memory, mind, habits and upbringing. People, almost always men, became wolves either voluntarily with help from magic, wolf skin or enchanted objects such as rings, or involuntarily when somebody cursed or betrayed them. In medieval chivalrous literature, the traitor was always a woman, either a malicious wife or jealous step-mother. One of the conditions for a werewolf’s return to human form was clothes, a motif already found in the antiquity. Werewolves with cyclical transformations hid their clothes, because without them they would remain wolves until the end of their lives. The details of transformation into wolves in the Primary Chronicle, Russian heroic poems (byliny) or Serbian folklore are not known, but the circumstances indicate that this ability was attributed to wizards and heroes.
Werewolf. Wolf. Middle Ages. Literature. Transformation. Lycanthropy.
Confessionally mixed marriages. Legal norms and social practice in the Kingdom of Hungary up to 1848
The aim of the study is to present the development of ecclesiastical and civil legal norms regulating the conclusion of mixed marriages and the question of the religious allegiance of children in the Kingdom of Hungary. It analyses the interventions of the state authorities and the Catholic Church in the period from the middle of the 18th century to the revolution of 1848. Joseph II’s ecclesiastical policies created a new legal framework in which the interests and aims of the state and the Catholic Church began to diverge. During the Napoleonic Wars and especially in the reform period, mixed marriages became a subject of politicization and struggle between the liberal opposition and the conservative pro-government group supported by the Catholic hierarchy. The study also includes a sounding into the discourse of the time and analyses representative texts of both Catholic and Protestant origin. In the final part, the author considers the social strategies developed in confessionally mixed local communities in reaction to the disciplinary pressure from the authorities.
Confessionally mixed marriages. Kingdom of Hungary. Josephinism. Ecclesiastical norms. Social norms. Reverses. Reform period.
The System of Social Care in 19th Century Bratislava and its Modernization around 1900
The study describes the main principles and stages of modernization in the long 19th century in the Kingdom of Hungary on both the state and local levels using the example of Pressburg / Bratislava. Since the reforms of Joseph II directed towards centralization of care for the poor in the Kingdom of Hungary were not implemented, care for poor and socially dependent people in the towns of Hungary was mainly the responsibility of municipal, church and charitable institutions. Until the fall of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Kingdom of Hungary devoted little attention to care for the poor, and state social policy had only weak effects. In comparison with other towns in Hungary, Pressburg / Bratislava had a mature network of communal and church institutions for social care, which were incorporated into an emerging system of communal social policy around 1900.
Communal social care. Social policy. Modernization. Kingdom of Hungary. Long 19th century.
The Re-Militarization of the Rhineland on 7 March 1936: A Question of Frontiers and International Security (also) in Central Europe
The entry of 30,000 German soldiers into the demilitarized Rhineland was a violation of the Treaty of Versailles and of the Locarno agreements signed under the aegis of the League of Nations in 1925. The latter were understood as giving some degree of correction to Versailles. They included the Rhine Pact, which internationally guaranteed the inviolability of the French – German and French – Belgian frontiers, and of the demilitarized Rhineland. Locarno could not be unilaterally renounced. Therefore Hitler resorted to force, while the Western powers gave priority to diplomacy and an effort to prove that the Locarno agreements had not lost their legal force. Slovak historiography has not devoted much attention to the Rhineland crisis, although it had an unfortunate impact on the fate of Czechoslovakia and the whole of Central Europe. The study is directed mainly towards French policy. On the basis of research in the diplomatic and military archives, it considers the problem of the struggle between force and law. Law suffered a defeat in Europe in 1936.
Rhineland Crisis 1936. Frontiers. Collective security. Central Europe.
HALLON Ľudovít – SCHVARC Michal
Ideas, reality and the international context of the social state in the Slovak Republic of 1939–1945
The conservative forces in the Slovak society of the first half of the 20th century sought models in Christian solidarity and the corporate state, which would replace parliamentarism of the Western type. The ideas could be put into practice after the seizure of power in autumn 1938 and especially after Slovakia became indepen-dent in March 1939. However, the ally of independent Slovakia, Nazi Germany rejected the corporate state. Therefore, the idea of Christian solidarity was replaced with the idea of Slovak national socialism and plans for a corporate social system for the Slovak working community according to the German model. The regime of the Slovak Republic of 1939 – 1945 attempted to put the new principles of the social state into economic and social practice. However, the implementation of the ideas of the time about a social state and the political system of Slovakia stopped half way.
Christianity. Solidarity. Encyclicals. Socialism. Nationalism. Parliamentarism. Political system. Trade unions. State. Regulation. Measures.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
DANGL Vojtech – BYSTRICKÝ Valerián et al., Chronology of the history of Slovakia and the Slovaks. From earliest times to the present (Ivona Kollárová, Stanislav Sikora) S. 939
KOWALSKÁ Eva, On Distant Roads, in Foreign Lands. The Social, Cultural and Political Dimensions of Confessional Exile from Hungary in the 17th Century (Viliam Čičaj) S. 942
BYSTRICKÝ Valerián, The international political context of the origin of the Slovak state on 14 March 1939 (Pavol Petruf) S. 944
Slovak – German Relations 1938 – 1941 in Documents I.; Slovak – German Relations 1941 – 1945 in Documents II. (Martina Fiamová) S. 948
KOVÁČ Dušan et al., A History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (Miroslav Tibor Morovics) S. 950
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK