Die Jahreskonferenz der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Geschichtsdidaktik (IGGD) fand im Jahr 2011 in Basel (CH) in Zusammenarbeit mit der Schweizerischen Dachorganisation der geschichtsdidaktischen Gesellschaften (SDGD) und dem Zentrum Politische Bildung und Geschichtsdidaktik an der Pädagogischen Hochschule der Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz statt. Die Tagung, die von Elisabeth Erdmann, der Vorsitzenden der IGGD, in Zusammenarbeit mit Béatrice Ziegler (Fribourg, Aarau, CH) organisiert worden war, befasste sich mit dem Thema „Geschichtswissenschaft und Schulunterricht: Probleme, Beziehungen, Herausforderungen“ und wandte sich damit einem grundlegenden Forschungsanliegen der IGGD zu. Viele der Tagungsbeiträge sind in diesem Band versammelt. Aber auch einige der thematisch ungebundenen Artikel im „Forum“ unterstreichen die aktuelle Relevanz der wissenschaftlichen Auseinandersetzung mit der Transformation der Begriffe, Inhalte und Methoden der akademischen Disziplin in ein Schul- und Unterrichtsfach.
Im 33. Jahrgang führt die Zeitschrift die erprobte Gliederung in drei Teile – „Fokus“, „Forum“, „Miszellen“ – fort. In diesem 33. Jahrgang (2012) wird unverändert der Beschluss des IGGD-Vorstandes umgesetzt, nur noch englische Artikel wiederzugeben, die jedoch von Zusammenfassungen in den drei Sprachen der IGGD – Deutsch, Englisch, Französisch – begleitet werden. Diese Maßnahme zeigte bereits recht gute Erfolge, was die internationale Wahrnehmung der Beiträge und die Aufnahme der Zeitschrift in gelistete internationale Journal-Aufstellungen betrifft.
PREFACE – VORWORT – AVANT-PROPOS
FROM HISTORICAL RESEARCH TO SCHOOL HISTORY: PROBLEMS, RELATIONS, CHALLENGES – VON DER GESCHICHTSWISSENSCHAFT ZUM SCHULUNTERRICHT: PROBLEME, BEZIEHUNGEN, HERAUSFORDERUNGEN – DE LA RECHERCHE HISTORIQUE A L’HISTOIRE SCOLAIRE: PROBLEMES, RELATIONS, DEFIS
Sebastian Barsch‘Bring the Noise’ – the Issue of ‘Sound’ in History Education
Arthur ChapmanDeveloping an Understanding of Historical Thinking Through Online Interaction with Academic Historians: Three Case Studies
Zhongjie MengThe World War II in History Didactics of Chinese Middle Schools in Our New Century Characteristics and Reflections
Daniel V. Moser-LéchotFrom Theories of History to Textbook Presentations: Themes of Imperialism
Nadine RitzerBetween ‘National Defense’ and ‘Peacekeeping’ – History Education in Cold War Switzerland
Manfred Seidenfuß & Markus DaumüllerThe Teacher: A Decisive Variable for Innovations in Teaching History
Urte KockaBringing Global History to the Classroom
Chunmei GuWorld History in the College Entrance Examination in Shanghai
Wolfgang HasbergClosed or Broken Narrations? Work-orders as Elements of Historical Narrations in History Textbooks
Sun Joo KangTranscending Eurocentric and Sino-centric Perspectives in the Middle School World History Curriculum in the Republic of Korea since 1945
Denisa LabischováCzech History in Historical Consciousness of Students and History Teachers – Empirical Research
Jan LöfströmThe Finnish High School Students Speak on Historical Reparations: A Note on a Study of Historical Consciousness
Karel Van Nieuwenhuyse‘Remembrance Education’ and the Historization of Holocaust Memories in History Education
Andreas Wagner Liviu Rebreanu’s Novel ‘The Forest of the Hanged’ and its Reception in Romanian History Schoolbooks
MISCELLANEA – MISZELLEN – FAITS DIVERS
George WranghamThe Cross-Currents of Historical Research
ABSTRACTS – ZUSAMMENFASSUNGEN – RÉSUMÉS
Sebastian Barsch‘Bring the Noise’ – The Issue of Sound in History Education
This paper deals with a topic hardly noticed to this day by historical scholarship: the history of hearing, regarding in particular to sounds and noises in the reconstruction of past mindsets and forms of governance. The potential this relatively new approach offers to historical scholarship is outlined on the basis of recent articles. Afterwards the benefit of integrating this position into historical scholarship is described. The current state of research on the subject is briefly addressed and possible ways of treating noises as topics in history education are indicated. Finally, some ideas how this approach could affect the way how children with low educational achievements learn historical contents are presented. It is believed that in particular pupils from this group could benefit from a 'sensual' approach of history education.
Arthur ChapmanDeveloping an Understanding of Historical Thinking through Online Interaction with Academic Historians: Three Case Studies
This article explores relationships between school history and academic history, first by modeling what such relationships might consist of in conceptual terms and second by exploring three case studies of projects in which academic historians worked with 16-19 year old history students to improve the students’ historical thinking. These case studies are described and evaluated in terms of their potential to enhance students learning experiences.
The history test is one part of the College Entrance Examination, which has been the most important method for Chinese universities to select candidates amongst middle school students.As a city with some independent rights to combine its own history curriculum standards and history textbooks, Shanghai has also been authorized to be prepared for the history test in the College Entrance Examination taking place every year. Recently, the experts-committee for the examination preparation in Shanghai has searched for some new ways to help students and also school teachers to identify the essence of history education more clearly, creating a so-called ‘history consciousness’. With several examples from the test papers and analysis results, the progress as well as problems in the development of world history didactic in Chinese middle schools could have been showed and reflected.
The article, which traces back to a paper presented at the ISHD conference 2009 in Brunswick is an exemplary explication: Based on the conditions of the schoolbook market and the established types of history textbooks in Germany, chapters of history textbooks are analysed as narrative units. The functions of work-orders are analysed in consideration of the question if they operate or can operate as hinge-joints. An inventory of the German-speaking studies shows that the functions of work-orders are not yet inquired sufficient. Therefore it seems necessary to inquire the practical work with history textbooks in history lessons in the form of research (action research) regarding the question if work-orders can be able to interrupt the enclosed narrations of history textbook chapters, in order to enable the pupils to challenge the authors arrangement.
Sun Joo KangTranscending Eurocentric and Sino-centric Perspectives in the Middle School World History Curriculum in the Republic of Korea since 1945
Since the 1940s, when world history was introduced in schools, historians and educators have been critical of its Eurocentric bias. In the 1980s, Sino-centrism emerged as another crucial problem because it influenced together with Eurocentrism the conceptualization of world history by identifying Europe and China as the two principal centers of cultural creation and diffusion. How did Eurocentrism and Sino-centrism emerge in Korean history education? What has changed and been retained in the latest world history curriculum revision? In addressing these questions, I explore the emergence and the changes of Eurocentrism and Sino-centrism in the middle school world history curriculum, the history of world history since its introduction to schools in the 1940s, and historians’ and educators’ criticisms of its Eurocentric bias. I suggest that when Korean history educators attempted to solve problems of Eurocentrism in the world history curriculum, Chinese history was expanded and as a result, Sino-centrism emerged as another crucial problem. Finally, I discuss the current issues and problems of the Korean world history curriculum.
Globalisation continues to develop and research in history is increasingly about global issues, and yet, in Germany and some other European countries, ‘global history’ is hardly ever taught in schools. Many other trends of historical research (such as everyday life history and the history of gender) were much more readily integrated into classroom teaching. When teaching Global History it is not enough to simply cover the history of other countries, one by one. A change of mind-set is necessary to apply global perspectives, questions and problems to the traditional history topics. Only in this way can local, regional and national history be globalized. Since this problem-orientated questioning approach touches the lives of young people and deals with today’s culture of history, Global History classes in schools can bring about three changes: history lessons become more interesting for both teachers and students alike, young people will be better orientated in this world and everyone in the classroom, both immigrant and non-immigrant students will be integrated.
Denisa LabischováCzech History in the Historical Consciousness of Students and History Teachers ― Empirical Research
Professional didactic research in the field of history has been developed in the Czech Republic since the mid-1990s, mainly at the Department of History of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Ostrava. This study deals with the concept of empirical research on historical consciousness and the current state of teaching the subject history in the Czech Republic, implemented in 2011. Mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods have been used (focus groups, questionnaire surveys, in-depth interviews) in a group of 2,524 respondents (students of primary schools, secondary vocational schools, secondary grammar schools, history education students and history teachers themselves) from nine regions in the Czech Republic. The paper describes theoretical and methodological bases, and presents partial results of the research considering selected aspects as the relationship of students and teachers towards the subject history or specifically towards the history of the Czech lands.
Jan LöfströmThe Finnish High School Students Speak on Historical Reparations: Notion of a Historical Consciousness Study
History is filled up with acts of injustice which have often been left in the margins of ist representations because they were estimated as embarrassing to the image and the selfunderstanding of the culpable communities. It is important, however, that the citizens can address their countries’ painful pasts constructively and reflexively. Also school history education can work on this goal. This article presents an account of an interview-based study of fifty-three Finnish high school students which explored how the students conceive the notion and possibility of historical reparations. It tries to identify the ‘weak’ points in their historical consciousness and offers suggestions how history teaching could make a more positive contribution considering those points.
Zonghjie MengThe World War II in History Didactics of Chinese Middle Schools in Our New Century ― Characteristics and Reflections
The WW II as one important topic in the Chinese history didactic showed some new characteristics since the uprising of the new century, especially in the middle schools. On one hand, the narratives of the WW II have changed from the traditional framework and identity structure to a united and global model. On the other hand, the aims of teaching the topic WW II have moved in the meanwhile gradually but strikingly from an ideologies-centered dimension to more reflective dimensions. However, the progress could still face several unresolved problems, such as negligence of some intellectual developments of the last 20 years, simplicity of methods in teaching the WW II, or a limited global perspective on the common memory of the WW II.
Daniel V. Moser-LéchotFrom Different Theories of History to Textbook Presentations: Themes of Iimperialism
This contribution intends to determine how theories of history can impact the criteria for selecting and presenting subjects and problems of history in order to prepare them in schoolbooks and history classes. To illustrate the mentioned topic, we chose the subject ‘new imperialism’, dealing with the period of time between 1870 and 1914. I foreground questions about the causes of imperialism. In the first part, I give insight to the developments of theories of imperialism deriving from the last decades and present the most important scientific consensuses and dissents in this area. In the second part, I discuss how these imperialistic theories are presented in Swiss history textbooks for secondary school level 1 and how history textbooks display these theories especially with regard to the fact that several scientific surveys have proven that schoolbooks remain important guiding instruments for classes. In the third part, I present some conclusions on the relation between scientific history theories and schoolbook presentations.
‘Remembrance education’ wants pupils to ‘learn from historic and present-day examples of intolerance, racism and xenophobia’ (e.g. through holocaust education), and deals with ‘memory’ in a way, which is very relevant to present times: An ongoing project, developing research seminars for final-year secondary school pupils, is explicitly conceived as a different, more specifically historical way of dealing with memories: To stimulate the pupils’ critical thinking abilities in consideration of the public holocaust memories as a historical, evolving phenomenon. The central research question is whether this approach would leave some marks in pupils’ beliefs. The results show that pupils associate what they have learnt in the seminars with the central aims of remembrance education (which is much more in line with popular, unschooled believes about the nature of past ‘dark events’ and the meaning of history) rather than with those of the discipline, although a close examination shows, however, that pupils’ beliefs on the matter are often composite and sometimes even contradictory.
Officially, Switzerland was one of the neutral states in the Cold War. In fact, however, economically as well as ideologically, Switzerland was a part of the West. This was accompanied by a widespread fear of Communism, which consequently had impacts on Swiss schools. This article focuses on the question, how schools became the institutions from which a so called launch for a ‘National Spiritual Defense’ could have emerged. To master the challenges of the present, the goal of teaching history in a ‘scientifically correct’ manner receded in importance. Other ‘functions’ were discussed – three of them, found throughout the discourses in teachers’ journals and curricula are presented in this article: The defense function, the promotion of peace and the strengthening of democracy.
Manfred Seidenfuß, Markus DaumüllerThe Teacher: A Decisive Variable for Innovations in Teaching History
The history teacher has to interpret and define his or her actions between the conflicting priorities of highly diverse requirements. This article is focused on role- and teaching concepts of history teachers which develop over time during their vocational practice. The job biographical prospect of teachers are a fundamental issue in dealing with social and historical cultural demands: What do you think is the task of history lessons ? Which part plays the analysis of historical questions for the acquisition of competence according to your mind? Do the expectations fulfill the standards of a modern history class, which gains its legitimation out of current issues, which often arise out of contradictory expectations, that a teacher is supposed to handle in classroom? Out of an on-going research work, vital key categories for the construction of self-concepts are going to be developed by qualified teachers.
Andreas WagnerLiviu Rebreanu’s Novel ‘The Forest of the Hanged’ and its Reception in Romanian History Schoolbooks
The article analyses the novel ‘The Forest of the Hanged’, published in 1922 by the Romanian writer Liviu Rebreanu. The novel broaches the issue of the national division of the Romanian people before 1918 and was written to legitimize the national unity, which was a result of the First World War. The novel is also made a subject in current Romanian history schoolbooks. The essay tries to answer the question how the legitimacy of Romania’s national unity which is given in the novel is mediated to Romanian pupils today.
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