Studia Historica Nitriensia 23 (2019), 1

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Studia Historica Nitriensia 23 (2019), 1
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Studia Historica Nitriensia
Studia Historica Nitriensia Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Hodžova 1, 94901 Nitra
Miroslav Palárik, Alena Mikulášová, Zuzana Hasarová



Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien

Česká cesta jako součást staré dopravní sítě Slovenska – úsek Holíč-Bíňovce. Lokalizace historických tras v krajině a jejich relikty, komunikační souvislosti
(The Czech Road as a Part of the Former Slovakia Transport Network - the Selection Holíč-Bíňovce. The Localization of Historical Routes in the Countryside and Their Relics, Communication Context)
pp. 3–28

The work is an attempt for a new interpretation of the 14th-century charter that quotes the main localities on the road from Buda to the Czech lands up to the Hungarian border on the Morava River. Apart from the document, the road has been named as the Czech Road. The Charter is one of the bases of the overall solution, but the survey of the area of interest from Holice to the eastern foothills of the Little Carpathians became equivalently important. Landline remnants have been precisely located and connected to other communication directions. For the first time, it has been proven that the document does not have the function of the itinerary, but merely quotes localities with the collection of charges on the road with the starting points of the Buda-Czech (surrounding) countries.

Keywords: History; the Middle Ages; Toll; Transport; Roads; Relics;

Nerudné suroviny Nitrianskej stolice pohľadom Mateja Bela
(Non-ferrous raw materials of the Nitra County by Matthias Bel ´s view)
pp. 29–42
Matthias Bel in his work Notitia Hungariae Novae historico-geographica offered a contemporary view of the status, importance, response and concrete realities of counties of Hungary within the Habsburg monarchy. The study is historical and geographical research history and environmental issues of non-ferrous raw materials, and their extraction in the Nitra County in the first half of the 18th century. Description of the subject contains text „Other finds“ in § XII. science section (Membrum primum physicum) of general parts of Notitia of Nitra County in Hungary (1742). The „probe‟ into Bel’s characteristics of this theme we have realized through critical commentary on contemporary texts supplemented by other sources, respectively literature and information obtained by studying geological maps. Specific findings, we finally compared with the results of field research and their own knowledge of the subject.

Keywords: Non-ferrous raw materials; Notitia; Nitra County; Mattias Bel;

Montánne podzemie južných svahov Ďumbierskych Tatier do konca 18. storočia
(Mining underground on the south hillsides of Ďumbierske Tatras Mt. until the end of the 18th century)
pp. 43–66
The study presents the history of excavation - the formation of the mining underground on the southern slopes of the second highest mountain in the Slovakia Ďumbierske Tatras Mt. An extreme combination of landscape features has created a difficult environment for medieval miners, so they had some problems to excavation deeper mines. On the base of terrain mining relicts we identified the first underground mining spaces from the 13th century. The real development of deep mining was started in the 16th century in the Ďumbierske Tatras Mt. The excavation of the underground spaces by manual disconnection and deep mining too stagnated in the end of the 18th century. In the studied area we identified (from the Vážna valley on the West, to the Štiavnička valley on the east) 32 mining localities with excavated historic mining underground.

Keywords: Historical Mining; Excavation; Underground Spaces; Deep Mining; Ďumbierske Tatras Mt.;

ČAJKA, Michal
Prícestné stĺpy na Orave od začiatku 18. po začiatok 20. storočia
(Columns by the Roads in Orava Region from the early 18th to the Beginning of the 20th Century)
pp. 67–90
Contribution deals with the columns by the roads with religious figural compositions in Orava region. We assess the preconditions for the origin and development of their creation, especially the strong counter-reform process in the area. The basis of the study is the extensive mapping of objects in the field, the determination of their basic formal, structural and stylistic features, more accurate localization as well as the processing of their iconographic program. From the time point of view, we focus on the period starting 1705, when the oldest column in Trstená was built, until 1917, when the newest column in Horná Zubrica is dated. We have divided this framework definition into three shorter stages, in which we describe individual realizations and evaluate their characteristic features.

Keywords: Columns by the Roads; Orava Region; Iconography; Baroque; Classicism; Folk Art;

GREGOROVÁ, Bohuslava
Historickogeografický príspevok k štúdiu vzniku a rozvoja cestovného ruchu južnej strany ďumbierskych Nízkych Tatier
(Historical-Geographical Contribution to the Study of Tourism of the Southern part of Ďumbierske Nízke Tatry Mountain)
pp. 91–108
Our aim in the contribution was to outline the genesis of tourism in the western part of the Nízke Tatry mountain. The main emphasis was put on the analysis of the factors determining and forming tourism, the most important were the natural potential, the development of the spa, the development of tourism, the development of transport and the socio-economic development of the Horehronský region. At the end of the paper, we have specified the periods in the development of tourism, such as the beginning of tourism (from the first mention of the territory until the end of the 19th century), period of the development of tourism (from the 19th century to 1945), the period of mass tourism (1946–1989), period of the transformation of tourism (1989–2000) and period the spatial growth of tourism (2001 – present).

Keywords: History; Geography; Tourism; Development; Ďumbierske Nízke Tatry Mountain;

Mikuláš Stano a jeho polonofilné postoje v medzivojnovom období
(Mikuláš Stano and his Polonophilic Attitudes during the Inter-war Period)
pp. 109–121
The article aims to map and analyze the development of Mikuláš Stano´s polonophilic attitudes in the 1920s and 1930s. The principal intention is to detect the beginnings of his Polish orientation and his following activities in this area. Mikuláš Stano was not just a translator, but also a propagator of Polish culture and influence in Slovakia. He began his orientation to Poland with scholarship stays in Jagiellonian University in Cracow and continued by writing to professor Władysław Semkowicz. Mikuláš Stano remained faithful his polonophilic attitudes to the end of his life.

Keywords: Slovak-Polish Relations; 1918 – 1939; Polonophiles; Mikuláš Stano; Polish Literature; Cracow;

„Naši úbohí židovskí bratia“. Švédske snahy o záchranu židov na Slovensku počas II. svetovej vojny
(“Our Poor Jewish Brothers”. Swedish Efforts to Save Jews in Slovakia during WWII)
pp. 122–143
The article describes a largely unknown Swedish effort to intervene in deportations of Jews in Slovakia between 1942 and 1944. Swedish officials and religious leaders used their diplomatic correspondence with the Slovak government to extract some Jewish individuals and later on the whole Jewish community of Slovakia from deportations by their government and eventually by German officials. Despite the efforts of Swedish Royal Consulate in Bratislava, the Swedish Archbishop Erling Eidem, and the Slovak Consul Bohumil Pissko in Stockholm, and despite the acts taken by some Slovak ministries, the Slovak officials including the President of Slovak republic Jozef Tiso revoked further negotiations in autumn 1944. However, the negotiations between Slovakia and Sweden created a scope of actions to protect some Jewish individuals which were doomed to failure due to the political situation. Nevertheless, this plan and the previous diplomatic interventions are significant to describe the almost unknown Swedish and Slovak efforts to save the Jews of Slovakia. Repeated Swedish offers to take in Jewish individuals and later the whole community would have likely prepared the way for larger rescues. These never occurred due to the Slovak interest in deporting its own Jewish citizens and later due to the German occupation of Slovakia.

Keywords: Sweden; Slovakia; 1941 – 1945; Jews; Anti-Semitism; Holocaust;

PEKÁR, Martin – TOKÁROVÁ, Zuzana
Výmeny mestských politických elít na Slovensku po páde medzivojnovej československej demokracie (Prešov, 1938 – 1944)
(Exchange of Municipal Political Elites in Slovakia after the Fall of Czechoslovak Interwar Democracy (Prešov, 1938 – 1944))
pp. 144–157
The subject of the analysis is the process of the exchange of municipal political elite in 1938 – 1944 on the example of Prešov. The municipal political elite is understood by the authors as the part of society that has power, and which determines the direction of further development of society. In the years 1938 – 1944 in Slovakia, there were several interventions in the municipal government in connection with important socio-political events (Post-Munich crisis, declaration of the Slovak state, etc.). These interventions were of a different nature and were regularly linked to staff exchanges. One of the consequences of exchanges in municipal political elites was the penetration of the elements of authoritarianism at the local level. These processes are analysed by the authors on the example of Prešov. In this city, the followers of the incoming Hlinka Slovak People's Party had to fight for the seizure of power, which required the use of all available means. However, they did not avoid intra-party competition. Similar in-depth analyses based on detailed primary research can be seen as a prerequisite for understanding and knowledge of the process of exchange of municipal political elites, including decisive socio-political determinants, as well as the nature of the authoritarian regime established in Slovakia during the Post-Munich crisis in the autumn of 1938.

Keywords: Elite; Municipal Government; Prešov; 1938 – 1944;


REPKA, Dominik – SATER, Peter
Erb na kamennom článku z Oponického hradu. Pôsobenie Horváthovcov v rodinnom sídle Aponiovcov
(Coat of Arms on a Stone Segment from Oponice Castle - The Activity of the Horváth Family in the Aponi Family Residence)
pp. 158–170

During archaeological excavation, in 2018, a stone architectural segment was discovered in the area of the Oponice castle's upper castle. It probably comes from an entry portal and was carved with a Renaissance coat of arms with the motive of a four-legged animal on which the bird sits. The coat of arms probably belongs to the Horváth family. In the second half of the 16th and the first half of the 17th century they are mentioned in the historical written sources as castellans at the Oponice castle. In addition, in this time there are other proofs of the relationship between the Horváth family and the Aponi family, who had owned the castle from the end of 14th, respectively the beginning of the 15th century.

Keywords: Oponice Castle; Coat of Arms; The Aponi Family, The Horváth Family;

Boje druhej svetovej vojny na juhozápadnom Slovensku v spomienkach priamych účastníkov, príslušníkov nemeckého Wehrmachtu. Memoárová literatúra ako vojenskohistorický prameň
(Combats of World War II in South-Western Slovakia in the Memoirs of Participants, Members of German Wehrmacht. Memoir Literature as a Source of Military-Historical Research)
pp. 171–192
The memoir literature can be used as a basic historical source besides the archival documents. Even combats of the final phase of the world war II in southwester Slovakia can use some of such books. There are two main groups of authors: German Generals (Heinz Guderian, Johannes Frieβner, Her-mann Balck) were more or less responsible for leading German military operations in this area. They offer their point of view, seen from their staff-offices, focusing on operational problems, sometimes justifying their own decisions, that might have shown themselves wrong. The other group of authors (H. Schmidt, E.-N. von Diest-Körber, K. Volleth, F. Hirschfelder) consist of minor officers and common soldiers. They report of their experiences much more common way, recording their everyday problems, fears, opinions. Thus they enable us to see them not only as members of a certain army, but also as humans.

Keywords: World War II; South-Western Slovakia; Memoir Literature; Heinz Guderian; Johannes Frieβner; Hermann Balck; Hans Schmidt; Ernst-Nordewin von Diest-Körber; Karl Volleth, Fritz Hirschfelder;


Kníhtlačiarsko-účastinársky spolok v Turčianskom Sv. Martine v rokoch 1870 – 1900
(Letterpress Join-Stock Company in Turčiansky Sv. Martin in Years 1870 – 1900)
pp. 193–210
Letterpress join-stock company in Turčiansky Sv. Martin was one of the most important printing and publishing institution in our country. This institution made a significant contribution to the dissemination of culture and education among Slovaks, but also supported the ideas of national movement an revival in the second half of the 19th and in the first half of 20th century. At the first place, however, this association was a shareholder-based company which main objective was, as well as any other company in past, present and future, to provide annual stable income and profitability for its own future development and growth. The writing is divided into two main parts. The first part is a description of the organizational structure of the association through the creation of basic capital by the selling of shares, rights and obligations of the general assembly or the management called administration. The second part is about history describing the first 30 years of association existence.

Keywords: Association; Publishers; Shares; Turčiansky Sv. Martin;


ŽUPČÁN, Ladislav
3D modelácia vybranej kultúrnej pamiatky na základe dobových historických i grafických dokumentov
(3D Model of Selected Cultural Monument Based on Contemporary Historical and Graphical Sources)
pp. 211–225
Various alternatives to the virtual environment have opened new application possibilities for both cultural and educational institutions. At present, it is not appropriate to talk only about monuments, artefacts and digitization, visual model reconstructions, multimedia guides, podcasts. It is also necessary to point to practical examples in defined areas and to create the necessary visions of cyber culture in the Slovak environment in terms of virtual collections and cyber artefacts. The presented study reflects the current state of the virtual world on the example of a selected 3D monument from the last phase of the Hungarian environment. The aim of the study is to design a conceptual vision of the creation of digital - virtual artefacts in the cyber - museum world for the needs of museums and universities in order to promote their activities and attract the interests of percipients.

Keywords: Cyberspace; Museum; University; 3D; Virtual Reality; Sources; XD Model;


BEAUNEOVÁ, Colette: Jana z Arku. (Ján Jakubej) – pp. 226–235

WARD, Mace James. Jozef Tiso. Kňaz, politik, kolaborant. (Viktória Rigová) – pp. 235–242

Kronika/Chronicle/Chronik – pp. 243–246

Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal / Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia – pp. 247–251

Pokyny pre autorov/Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren – pp. 252–256

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