Studia Historica Nitriensia 25 (2021), 1

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Studia Historica Nitriensia 25 (2021), 1
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Studia Historica Nitriensia
Studia Historica Nitriensia Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Hodžova 1, 94901 Nitra
Palárik, Miroslav



Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien

Sklené koráliky doby bronzovej a halštatskej na Slovensku a stanovenie ich fyzikálnych charakteristík (Glass beads of the Bronze Age and Hallstatt Period in Slovakia and determination of their physical characteristics)
pp. 3–46

The aim of the submitted study is to determine physical characteristics on selected groups of glass beads from the Early Bronze Age (HA) and the Hallstatt period (HC, HD) from northern, southwestern and southeastern Slovakia by means of non-destructive methods. Using a binocular magnifier, microscope, Raman spectroscopy, absorbtion spectroscopy (UV–VIS–NIR), we obtained data on the character of the glass beads’ quality. The analyzed collection of beads (from the burial grounds in Chotín, Ždaňa, Ilava, the cave settlement of Háj and the hillfort in Smolenice) contained various colour variants of glass beads (blue, green, yellow and black; brown clay or clay/ceramic beads are reported too) as well as various shapes. From the total number of analyzed beads (161 exemplars), clay or combined clay/ceramic beads are most frequent (74 exemplars). 16 exemplars were made of amber, one was made of another material and 70 exemplars were glass beads. Basic physical quantities were studied on black, blue, green and yellow glass beads.

Keywords: Glass Beads; Bronze Age; Hallstatt Period; Physical Characteristics;

ŠVECOVÁ, Adriana
Historické premisy a mantinely kodifikácie občianskeho práva hmotného v Uhorsku (Historic Premises and Limits of the Codification of the Hungarian Civil Substantive Law)
pp. 47–70

Drafting and adopting the Hungarian Civil Code was the greatest challenge in the so-called Transleithanian area during the existence of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. Despite the dilligent work of the main government body involved in the legislative works, the Ministry of Justice, the draft of the Civil Code (1900) was only brought for public discussion until the end of the 19th century. In the centre of the author's attention is a brief insight into the commencement of the codification process during the dualist era which started right after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, by the decision of the Ministry of Justice to swiftly initiate the civil substantial law codification in 1869. The readers will get acquainted with the historical and processual side of the works on the Civil Code Draft of 1900 which, even after hundred years, is still an interesting object of studies for its originality, legal creativity, and European nature which reflected the fact that the Hungarian civilists and lawmakers were well-established in the European community of lawyers.

Keywords: Dualism; Development of Law; Kingdom of Hungary; Civil Code Draft of 1900; Codification; Legislative Process; Civil Substantial Law; The Civilist Doctrine;

TELVAK, Vitalii – YANYSHYN, Bohdan
„Geschichte des Ukrainischen (Ruthenischen) Volkes“ of Mykhailo Hrushevsky in the Discussions of the Beginning of the XXth Century („Geschichte des Ukrainischen (Ruthenischen) Volkes“ of Mykhailo Hrushevsky in the Discussions of the Beginning of the XXth Century)
pp. 71–90

The study is devoted to the research of the historiographical discussion, which was provoked by the publication of the German translation of the first volume "History of Ukraine-Russia", authored by Mykhailo Hrushevsky. The study identifies specific features of the debate on the Hrushevsky´s historiographical ideas in the environment of Ukrainian, Polish, German, Czech and Romanian historians. The research shows that among the strengths of Hrushevsky´s scientific work, the reviewers included consistency in the generalization of the source base and historical literature. Western European historians have clearly disagreed with the revision of the so-called Norman theory by Ukrainian scientists, as they questioned their established vision of the past of Eastern Europe and their conclusions substantially shifted the accents of research to the past. They considered the author´s categorical attitude to be inappropriate in defending their own hypotheses without broadening the source base. The German edition of “History of the Ukrainian Nation” by Mykhailo Hrushevsky was an event that attracted attention not only in the environment of Ukrainian but also German historiography.

Keywords: Mykhailo Hrushevsky; “History of the Ukrainian (Ruthenian) people”; historiographic discussion;

Svätopluk ako symbol národa a ideál občianskych cností (v učebniciach dejepisu pre základné a stredné školy vydávaných v rokoch 1918 – 1945) (Svätopluk as a national symbol and ideal citizen (in history textbooks for primary and secondary schools published in 1918–1945))
pp. 91–112

Analysing history textbooks used in Slovak schools in two different political regimes in 1918 – 1938 and 1939 – 1945, the article discusses the political instrumentalization of medieval ruler Svätopluk in school history education. Despite of changing regimes, different political values and agendas and developments in historical research, history textbooks in the period researched tended to ascribe him two distinctive roles, constantly. Historical hero, who became an iconic figure in Slovak nation-building historiography, was used in two different ways in the formation of the collective identity and collective memory of the pupils – as a symbol of social cohesion of the community – members of the nation, and as an embodiment of the fight against the Others – the enemies of the nation. This lead to the exclusion of many students with minority background (Hungarian, German, and in the later period also Czech) from the mainstream narrative and labeled them as enemies.

Keywords: History Textbooks; Concept of a Hero; Svätopluk; Collective Identity; Collective Memory;

TIŠLIAR, Pavol – ŠPROCHA, Branislav
Malé dejiny veľkých akcií: sčítanie ľudu z roku 1919 (A small history of big events: the 1919 census)
pp. 113–130

The article deals with the first special census in Slovakia, which took place just after the establishment of Czechoslovakia in 1919. It not only describes its basic milestones but also points out and evaluates its uniqueness and significance. Despite the fact that its results have never been comprehensively evaluated and due to the fragmentary nature of the information it will not happen in full, in the history of Slovakia it was an exceptional and extensive event of the newly created public administration after the establishment of Czechoslovakia.

Keywords: Census; Census Methodology; Special Census 1919; Slovakia;

RIGOVÁ, Viktória
Etablovanie Zemského ústredia pečlivosti o mládež v Bratislave a jeho okresných pobočiek v medzivojnovom Československu (Establishment of the Regional Youth Care Centre in Bratislava and its district institutions in interwar Czechoslovakia)
pp. 131–152

Social care for children and youth in Slovakia achieved significant progress in the interwar period. Behind it is the activity of the Regional Youth Care Centre in Bratislava, which began to take shape in the late 1920s, and was officially established in 1930. It became an umbrella institution for District Youth Care, which arose in an evolutionary way in Slovak districts a few for years earlier. The establishment of the Centre and its district branch offices were gradual and they had to fight people´s mistrust, lack of co-workers and insufficient financial resources. The Regional Youth Care Centre overcame initial obstacles and became the main organizer of voluntary care for children and youth in Slovakia and continued its activities even after the destruction of the Czech-Slovak Republic.

Keywords: Social Care; Children and Youth; Regional Youth Care Centre; Czechoslovakia;


Hlinená forma na odlievanie falošných mincí z Pustého hradu vo Zvolene (Counterfeiting Coin Mold from the Deserted Castle (Pustý hrad) in Zvolen)
pp. 153–165

The aim of the article is to draw attention to a sole find of a clay mold for casting counterfeit coins of Emperor Leopold I. The artifact was unexpectedly unearthed at the National Cultural Monument Pustý hrad (Deserted Castle) in Zvolen. In the 2019 research season, during the excavation of the rubble backfill of the flanking tower ditch in the eastern line of the Upper Castles fortification, five fragments from a casting mold were discovered. The item serves as proof of counterfeiting activity, and it is a unique modern find, dated at the end of the 17th Century, not only from Deserted Castle, but in general from the territory of Slovakia, as we do not know a similar artefact from other castles.

Keywords: Middle Slovakia; Deserted castle (Pustý hrad); 17th Century; Production of Counterfeit Coins;

Nitriansky cech murárov a jeho artikuly z roku 1724. Prameň k dejinám remesiel a cechov v meste Nitra v prvej štvrtine 18. storočia (The Bricklayers Guild of Nitra and its Articles from the year 1724. The Source to the History of Crafts and Guilds in the Town of Nitra during the First Quarter of the 18th Century)
pp. 166–190

The craftsmen guilds were an integral part of the municipal society in every free royal town and privileged landlord cities in the territory of present Slovakia as a part of the former Hungarian Kingdom during the Early Modern Period. The privileged town of Nitra was the property of local bishop and its burghers possessed a lot of privileges and rights. Most of them worked as artisans and therefore they associated themselves to the guilds for protection of their crafts. Craftsmen in Nitra made its production for the need of local inhabitants only. During the 16th and 17th centuries most of the artisans in Nitra got the rules of their guilds through the charts issued by bishop of Nitra as landlord. The bricklayers in Nitra and Nitra county established their guild on the 24 July 1724, when the Emperor and King Charles the Sixth (the Third) of Habsburg issued the royal privilege for them.

Keywords: Bricklayers; Guilds; Articles; Craftsmen; Town of Nitra; Bishop;

Súdny proces so starostom Nitry Františkom Mojtom v roku 1946 v materiáloch Národného súdu ( Trial with Nitra Mayor František Mojto in 1946 in the Materials of the National Court)
pp. 191–214

The period after the second world war is characterised by retribution – the punishment of crimes committed during the occupation. For this purpose, extraordinary people’s courts were also set up in territory of Slovakia, especially important cases were to be tried by the National Court in Bratislava. The captured Slovak collaborators, fellow nazi security personnel, etc. ended up in these courts. In particular, several trials with representatives of the Slovak State have been closely monitored by the public. The retributive judiciary in the post-war Czechoslovak Republic was created not only as a result of the efforts of the victorious powers to punish crimes committed by the Nazis and their allies during the war, but also served as a means of removing the influence of former political regime officials who served in the Czech Countries and Slovakia from 1939 to 1945. In Nitra, public attention was focused, among other things, on the trial of former Mayor of Nitra František Mojto. Mojto was sentenced to 8 months and other material penalties. The case study assesses the procedural side of the trial – its arrest, indictment, conviction, detention, as well as the causal background behind the completion of the trial.

Keywords: Retribution Judiciary; Nitra; World War II; František Mojto;


Vývojové kontexty tradičného staviteľstva (na príklade obce Hrušov) (Developmental contexts of traditional architecture (the example of Hrušov))
pp. 215–231

The paper focuses on the issue of cultural-historical as well as economic-geographical connections of traditional architecture in Hrušov. It is based on the historical level of architectural culture formation with its conditioning factors and with an emphasis on the specific residential housing. The aim is to monitor the possibilities of preservation of traditional elements of architecture as one of the cultural identifying phenomena of the local community. In this context, we point out their validity under the current conditions concerning the generation transmission process. The study is based on the results of field ethnological research of the author in 2018−2019 in this particular village concerning its cultural and historical development.

Keywords: Traditional Architecture; Sparsely Populated Areas; Local Community; Hrušov;

GREGOROVÁ, Bohuslava – ČUKA, Peter
Donovaly – historickogeografická analýza transformácie drevorubačskouhliarskych osád na stredisko cestovného ruchu v 20. storočí (do roku 1989) (Donovaly – Historical–Geographical Analysis of the Transformation of the Coal-Mining Settlements into Recreational Centre during the 20th Century (until 1989)
pp. 232–253

The transformation process of the original coal-mining settlements into the tourism centre took place mainly in the 20th century. This transformation was influenced by many socio-economic processes. As the most important we have identified: the loss of the original function of the municipality, depopulation of the municipality, intensive urbanization processes in the territory of Zvolenská kotlina, construction of the transit road E – 77 leading directly through the municipality that connects Banská Bystrica with Ružomberok (Budapest with Krakow), suitable natural conditions for the development of recreational activities. Our aim in the article was to describe the origin and spatial development of tourism in the Donovaly village. In the conclusion, we have identified four historical-geographical phases of its development: 1. the beginning of tourism (1938–1959), 2. development of mass tourism (1960–1989), 3. development of the free tourism market (1989–1995), 4. growth of tourism infrastructure and the beginning of recreational urbanization processes (from 1996 to the present).

Keywords: History; Geography; Tourism; Transformation; Settlements; Donovaly;

Miesto a úlohy materských škôl na Slovensku v systéme komunistickej výchovy (1948–1953) (Status and tasks of kindergartens in Slovakia in the system of communist upbringing (1948 – 1953))
pp. 254–269

The paper is devoted to issues of preschool facilities – kindergartens (children from three years to six years old) in Slovakia during years 1948 – 1953, that is, during a period of culminating Stalinism. The paper is pointing to the fact that school administrations of interwar Czechoslovak Republic and First Slovak Republic were paying less attention to preschool facilities, which was a result of low employment of women, as well as prevalent societal conviction that upbringing of children is provided primarily in families. The article is pointing to change which occurred in the second half of 1945 but primarily to a radical break after February putsch in year 1948, when Communist Party of Czechoslovakia imposed in Czechoslovak Republic the monopoly of power. The process of upbringing and education at schools of all degrees was realized in line with ideology of Communist Party – Marx-Leninism. The Communist Party included to system of communist upbringing also children from three to six years old, which attended kindergartens. The paper is also analyzing a status of kindergartens after year 1949, when in Czechoslovak Republic initiated the First Five Years Economic Plan, which required a large influx of workers, including women, into all spheres of industry, agriculture and services. A need for female workers brought an issue of providing care for their children. Consequently, state authorities since year 1949 started a network of kindergartens providing all day care, which were obliged to fulfill two basic requirements: to provide board and afternoon sleep for children. This, in practical level, required to prepare dining room, kitchen, transport of provisions and its hygienic storage, also rooms and furnishing for afternoon sleep of children. The paper is also devoted to complex issue pedagogic personnel in preschool facilities. The School Authority during years 1948 – 1953 wrestled with lack of teachers in preschool facilities and with insufficient qualification of pedagogues, which was caused by frequent changes in educational process provided by pedagogues of preschools facilities.

Keywords: Kindergarten; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia; Employment of Women; First Five Years Economic Plan;


FORMANEK, Matúš – HNAT, Adam – FILIP, Vladimír
Prezentácia vybraných objektov kultúrneho dedičstva vo virtuálnom múzeu – tvorba 3D objektov (Presentation of selected objects of cultural heritage in a virtual museum – creation of 3D objects)
pp. 270–289

By means of a case study, the submitted article describes the solution of a single part of a larger research task. In the submitted article, we deal with the process of creating 3D models of three selected cultural heritage objects (ceramic vase of Pozdišovce, traditional mangle board and traditional music instrument – jaw harp) using two different methods – manual modelling and photogrammetry. As a conclusion, we need to find the method, the use of which leads to better and higher quality results, taking into account the time consumption and other factors. We will use the created virtual 3D equivalents of real objects later in the next phase of research when they will become part of a small test scene of a „virtual museum“. In the museum, the final 3D objects will be presented to the participants in the following phase of our research.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage; 3D Object; 3D Models; Photogrammetry; Modeling;


HOCHEL, Marian. Vivant Denon a kouzlo empíru. Napoleonova hvězda, která oživuje duši. (Ján Jakubej), pp. 290–293.
BRAUDEL, Fernand. Dynamika kapitalismu. (Ján Jakubej), pp. 294–296.
SEMSEY, Viktória (ed.). National Identity and Modernity 1870 – 1945. Latin America, Southern Europe, East Central Europe. (Mária Molnárová), pp. 297–302.

Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal / Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia – pp. 303–307
Pokyny pre autorov/Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren – pp. 308–312

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