Český časopis historický 119 (2021) 4
STUDIE / STUDIES
ZOUZAL TomášHospodářské dvory SS ve výcvikovém prostoru Böhmen … S. 775(Economic yards of the SS in the Böhmen training area)
The study deals with the agricultural farms of the SS organisation located in the SS-military training areas Beneschau/Bohmen in 1942–1945. There were several dozens such farms in the territory of the training ground, so-called SS-Hofe, and they employed most of that part of the original population, which had remained in the region after the confiscation of the area. The text describes the genesis, activities, issues of administration, staffing and profitability of the SS-farms. The study’s conclusion discusses the liquidation of the yards after the end of World War II.Keywords: Second World War – economic history – SS-Truppenubungsplatz – Czech lands – agriculture – SS-Hof, SS-Gut
RESUMÉThe topic of the SS’s economic activities is now one of the more or less well elaborated chapters in the history of this organization. Nevertheless, the SS-farms (SS-Guter, SS-Hofe), which formed one of the many branches of its economic empire, have so far remained almost entirely outside the attention of historians. They existed at the „Bohmen training area“ south of Prague in 1942–1945. Comprised of the farms of large estates or peasant farmsteads, they were created at the training ground to maintain food supplies at least in part after the confiscation of land comprising an area of about 450 km2 for military purposes. Hence, from a material point of view, their basis was the expropriated real estate and inventory of the former residents. They were directed by administrators, who were subordinate to the chief administrators of the districts, over which stood the garrison administration of the training area, which managed the economic activities at the training ground. At first, Czechs held positions of administrators, but members ofthe SS gradually replaced them.The individual farms worked plots in the order of hundreds of hectares and had 100–200 employees from the ranks of the Czech population. The intention was to create prosperous model estates, which would gradually pass into the administration, or even the ownership of SS veterans. However, the actual results fell short of the expectations. SS administrators or overseers did not always understand agriculture; economic interests at the training ground clashed with military intentions, and civilian employees did not work with the utmost diligence. These were mostly local people affected by the expropriation and relocated from their homes. Apart from the financial reward, which was above average for the category of agricultural workers, they had no motivation to excel at their work.Work on the farms was often demotivating, and labour shortages proved to be a key issue, with staff being unable to harvest grain and potatoes in large areas around the farms. On balance the economic result was therefore based on efforts to create an exemplary, profitable agricultural business, the military needs at the training ground, staff performance and the economic realities prevailing in the second half of the war. The regulated war-time economy hampered the capabilities and intentions of the SS; the training ground did not achieve independence from the Protectorate’s supply system; the farms only met the mandated minimum supply requirements, while options for the financing and modernization of the farms remained limited. Therefore, it was not possible to consider the farms model companies and the harvests of 1943 and 1944 became examples of an unmanageable situation.After the war, the SS-farms were liquidated. In the restitution proceedings, real estate was returned to the former owners who also reacquired their farm equipment. The liquidation was accompanied by a number of problems and disputes, which in some cases extended even into the communist era after 1948.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
IVANYUK OlehČesko na počátku 20. století v pohledu kyjevských novin „Rada“ … S. 812(Czechia at the beginning of the 20th century in the perspective of the Kiev newspaper „Rada“)
The article presents an analysis of texts that were published in the Kiev periodical “Rada” (1906–1914) and which are devoted to current issues of Czech social life at the beginning of the 20th century. The analysis tries to find out what was known about the Czech lands at the time and how they were seen by Ukrainian journalists from leading Kiev newspapers. The main issues that attracted the attention of the editors were the international meetings held in Prague with the participation of the Ukrainian intelligentsia, especially the “All-Sokol Festival”. The editorial board of “Rada” also explained in detail the problems of the spreading national education in the Germanised areas in northern Bohemia. The Ukrainian intelligentsia promoted the idea that the Czechs could be a successful example of the struggle of an oppressed nation against the ruling centre of the empire. Several journalists discussed the Czech issue: Ippolyt (Hyppolit Olgerd) Bochkovsky, Leonid Zhebunyov, Volodymyr Pisnyachevsky and Sofia Rusova.Keywords: Czech Lands (Czechia) – Prague – Ukrainians – the Kyiv Newspaper „Rada“ – International Meetings – „Sokol“ (Falcon) Movement – All-Falcon Congress – National Education
RESUMÉBy analysing the materials of the Kiev newspaper “Rada”, the author attempts to characterise the current issues of social and cultural life of Czechia at the beginning of the 20th century, which were of interest to the Ukrainian public. Through the research, it was found that the attention of the editorial staff and readers was attracted by international meetings held in Prague, especially by the All-Slavic Congresses of Teachers and Students, conferences of Slavic representatives and the like. The first congress of Bohemian officials was explained particularly thoroughly in “Rada”. It was a very interesting event for the readers, because nothing like it happened in the Russian Empire; the question of the struggle of civil servants for their own rights was extraordinary and unprecedented. The editors were interested in the All-Sokol Festival in Prague, which was also attended by a Ukrainian delegation. These events gave the Ukrainians a sense of unification of their nation in both empires (Russian and Habsburg) and also belonging to the Slavic world.Special attention was paid to the life of Ukrainian society in Prague. Ukrainian society had a relatively strong background, as Ukrainian students from Lvov were forced to move to Prague under the pressure of political circumstances. For example, the events in honour of Taras Shevchenko were thoroughly described, which in Dnieper Ukraine (in the Russian Empire), especially in the period after the revolution of 1905–1907, were almost impossible to organize. While reading “Rada”, the reader should have realized that Ukrainian history and culture are interesting for other nations as well. It was a sign of the need to take care of the mother tongue and respect one’s own past.The editors of the newspaper also described thoroughly the problem of the spread of national education and the Czech language in the northern Germanised areas of Bohemia. Sofia Rusova explained this issue meticulously. The Ukrainian intelligentsia, through “Rada”, spread the idea that the Czechs could be an example of a successful struggle of an oppressed nation with the power centre of the empire. Several journalists of “Rada” discussed this: Hyppolit Olgerd Bochkovsky, Leonid Zhebunyov, Volodymyr Pisnyachevsky and Sofia Rusova. The mentioned publicists knew Prague well, visited Czechia repeatedly and took part in various cultural events.
DISKUSE / DISKUSSION
DVOŘÁČKOVÁ-MALÁ DanaFrantišek Palacký, české dějiny a dvorský výzkum.Přehled a metodologie bádání … S. 826(František Palacký, Czech history and court research:An overview and the methodology of the research)
The study deals with the birth of court research in Czech historical science and on that basis draws attention to the key trends, which are favoured by the traditional linear interpretation of Czech history. It points out the discourses and paradigms through the lens of methodological concepts and narratives, which had a direct impact on the development or background of various research topics.Keywords: Sovereign court – Estatism – methodology – Czech history – Middle Ages – historiography – František Palacky – Goll School – Ferdinand Seibt – František Kavka – Josef Macek.
RESUMÉThe discussion text deals with the analysis of the genesis of research of court research in the so-called Bohemian Middle Ages, points out the crucial factors that contributed to its development or, on the contrary, limited it. On the one hand, it draws attention to the earliest works of domestic researchers (František Kavka, Josef Macek, Ivan Hlavaček), and at the same time highlights the key events that stimulated interest in the royal court, namely a Nuremberg exhibition in 1978 on the occasion of the 600th anniversary of the death of Emperor Charles IV. On the other hand, the paper takes into account the undeniably significant influence of foreign research and the free exchange of knowledge after 1989. It particularly takes into account the editorial series called Residenzenforschung, published by German researchers on court and residence topics. In addition to an overview of research, however, the paper also brings attention to the fact that the interest in the royal court, despite the key works and influences mentioned, has always been a secondary phenomenon in domestic historiography. The primary issue in the Bohemian Middle Ages was the Hussite period, which since the work of František Palacky in the 19th century was understood as the peak of the Middle Ages in our country. This paradigm survives to this day. However, the key factor for the delay in the interest in the royal court is documented by the way in which Bohemian medieval history is interpreted, as set by František Palacky, because instead of the monarch, who stood at the head of the court as its mover and at the same time a representative of the monarchy, the author preferred Czech court officials of the land administration in that role. He used them to define the independence of the Bohemian state precisely against the monarch. Undoubtedly, the author evaluated this fact in the spirit of thought, not of the history of the Middle Ages, but of the 19th century. After all, the royal court at this time was based in Vienna and the Bohemian Kingdom was only one of the lands of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.Translation by Sean Miller
Obzory literatury / Review articles and reviews
WERNISCH MartinNad výsledky mezinárodního bádání k 500. výročí reformace … S. 848(Dokončení z minulého čísla)
V roce 2017, kdy uběhlo pět set let od publikování thesí Martina Luthera k odpustkové kampani, proběhlo velké jubileum evropské (světové) reformace – ba přesněji řečeno vyvrcholilo, neboť s intenzivním připomínáním slavného data veřejnosti se začalo víceméně již o deset let dříve. V rámci „reformační“, resp. „lutherovské dekády“, oficiálně spuštěné s podzimem roku 2008, se rozeběhla celá mašinérie akcí. Bylo tomu tak především v Německu, kde se patronem jubilea staly církve, obce, země i celý spolkový stát. Lutherovská dekáda však záhy svým ohlasem působila též přes jeho hranice a v různé podobě i míře byla napodobována také v mnoha dalších částech světa. Vcelku tak lze říci, že oslavy výročí počátku reformace, vlastně jakási „máti všech jubileí“, jež se teprve později začala slavit také u jiných jevů, institucí a osob, takže za sebou tak jako tak měly již od svého prvního odzkoušení ve velkém (v roce 1617) dost imposantní dějiny, zažily ještě jednou nové vystupňování.
Miroslav BÁRTASedm zákonů. Jak se civilizace rodí, rostou a upadají 906(Jaroslav Pánek)
Michal DRAGOUN – Jindřich MAREK – Kamil BOLDAN –Milada STUDNIČKOVÁKnižní kultura českého středověku 912(Bořek Neškudla)
Nathalie KALNÓKYThe Szekler Nation and Medieval Hungary.Politics, Law and Identity on the Frontier 916(Peter Bučko)
Stephen BENNETTElite Participation in the Third Crusade 919(Mikuláš Netík)
Jiří KUTHANParléřovský mýtus. Rod Parléřů – dílo a jeho ohlas 923(František Šmahel)
Fanny MÜNNICHDer sächsische Adel an den Universitäten Europas.Universitätsbesuch, Studienalltag und Lebenswegein Spätmittelater und beginnender Frühneuzeit 928(Ivan Hlaváček)
Maria Antonietta VISCEGLIALa Roma dei papi. La corte e la politica internazionale(secoli XV–XVII), a cura di Elena Valeri e Paola Volpini 933(Tomáš Černušák)
Paolo SACHETPublishing for the Popes. The Roman Curiaand the Use of Printing (1527–1555) 935(Lenka Veselá)
Pavel SLÁDEKJehuda Leva ben Bes¸al´el– Maharal. Obrana uzavřeného světav židovském myšlení raného novověku 938(Jiřina Šedinová)
Katharina ARNEGGERDas Fürstentum Liechtenstein. Session und Votum im Reichsfürstenrat 945(Jiří Hrbek)
Martin KLEČACKÝPoslušný vládce okresu. Okresní hejtman a proměny státní mociv Čechách v letech 1868–1938 948(Marie Macková)
František BAUERŽivot proti zkáze. Torzo pamětí novináře 1925–1945 951(Jaroslav Pánek)
Tatiana V. VOLOKITINA – Anna R. LAGNO –Albina F. NOSKOVA – Boris S. NOVOSELCEV (eds.)1968 god. Pražskaja vesna: 50 let spustja. Očerki istorii 954(Igor Zavorotchenko)
Jiří KOCIAN – Jaroslav PAŽOUT – Tomáš VILÍMEK –Stanislav BALÍK – Vít HLOUŠEKDějiny Komunistické strany Československa IV (1969–1993) 959(Marek Skála)
Jan RYCHLÍKČeskoslovensko v období socialismu 1945–1989 963(Jiří Pešek)
Vladimír ŠTEFKO a kol.Dejiny slovenského divadla I. (do roku 1948) 969(Lucie Felcan Rajlová)
Vlasta VALEŠDer Schulverein Komenský. 150 Jahre tschechisches Schulwesen in Wien /Školský spolek Komenský. 150 let českého školství ve Vídni 977(Jaroslav Pánek)
Zprávy o literatuře … S. 982
Z vědeckého života / Chronicle
Vlastislav Lacina (27. 7. 1931 Blaženice – 30. 12. 2020 Praha)(Jan Hájek) … S. 1001
Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … S. 1009Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … S. 1009
Celoobsah … I – XIX
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