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Český časopis historický / The Czech Historical Review 120 (2022), 2

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Český časopis historický / The Czech Historical Review 120 (2022), 2

Hrsg. v. Historický ústav Akademie věd ČR (Historisches Institut der Tschechischen Akademie der Wissenschaften),English version: Ed. Historický ústav Akademie věd ČR (Institute of History of the Czech Academy of Sciences)
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Český časopis historický / The Czech Historical Review
Czech Republic
Institute of History of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prosecká 76, CZ-190 00 Praha 9 – Nový Prosek
Vojtěch Szajkó, Historický ústav, Akademie věd České republiky

Český časopis historický 120 (2022) 2



Vaníček Vratislav
Nevěsta Dobrava a obrácení knížete Měška
(genealogické, politické a transformační aspekty) … S. 307
The Bride Dobrava and the Conversion of Prince Mieszko
(Genealogical, Political and Transformational Aspects)

The marriage of Princess Dobrava to Prince Mieszko I is a specific example of acculturation in Central-Eastern Europe, when Christianity came from Bohemia, which was just striving to emancipate its own diocese, further east, to emerging Poland. The study first addresses the genealogical issues of the Boleslaus I family and considers the identification of Dobrava’s mother (Biagota?, Slavník family?). The impulse for the Christianisation of Poland was the defeat in 963; Prince Mieszko needed military allies and a certain crisis of identity can be expected (“culture shock” – the disfavour of ethnic “daemons”). The chronicle of Thietmar of Merseburg rather obscured the information about the marriage, through a certain unfavorability towards Mieszko and especially towards his son Bolesław. The baptism took place before the establishment of the diocese, a cultural transfer “from court to court”, from Prague to Poznań, perhaps due to the similarities between the Czech and Polish dynastic traditions. The goals of Mieszko’s marriage were achieved in 967 (victory of the combined Polish-Bohemian army over Wichmann, birth of a son Bolesław).
Keywords: Genealogy of the Přemyslids – Biagota – Dobrava – war of 963 – crisis of pagan identity – wedding of Dobrava and Mieszko – baptism of Mieszko – Thietmar of Merseburg – war of 967

The study analyses the circumstances, causes and consequences of the marriage of the Bohemian Princess Dobrava (Bona) to Prince Mieszko I, the ruler of the area around Poznań, the core of the emerging Polish state. This event is an opportunity to take a closer look at the position of both dynasties, the Přemyslids and the Piasts, in the situation of the transfer of Christianity in the 960s. Whereas the chronicler Widukind emphasizes the military significance of the marriage, the later Thietmar focuses on the acceptance of baptism; the even later Gallus Anonymus associates the marriage with a dynastic reputation. All of these aspects can be accepted considering the weakness of Mieszko after his defeat by Wichmann the Younger in 963, when he was threatened in terms of power and probably also in terms of the “failure” of the protection of the “tribal daemons”.
The Bohemian side conditioned the new alliance and wedding of Dobrava connected with it on the “conversion” of Mieszko, which apparently was supported by part of his “milites”. The Christianisation took place in an accelerated way, under the impression of a military threat, without negotiations with Rome or the Empire, essentially a translation “from court to court”, from Prague to Poznań; it was made possible by the similar genealogical reputation and linguistic proximity of the two dynasties. Mieszko was baptised still before the wedding, as mentioned by Thietmar, and in the second war in 967 along with Bohemian aid he defeated Wichmann. Henryk Łowmiański defended the (still prevailing) view that the “ceremonial” baptism took place in the Empire at the court of Otto I in 965–966; however, this cannot be proved even by an indication. However, the family relations of the father of Dobrava, the Bohemian prince Boleslaus I, are also a question. The wedding coins prove the existence of Princess Biagota, probably a relative of the Ekkehart family or the Billungs, the wife of some Prince Boleslav. Herbert Ludat connected him with Boleslaus I, but their engagement in 929 (after the defeat of Prince Wenceslas) is hardly possible; if the “wedding” coin falls into the turn of the 960s–970s, then Biagota could have been the wife of Boleslaus II.
The study points to ambiguities surrounding the date of death of Boleslaus I (967 or 972). The unknown “excellent (egregia) wife” (Cosmas) of Boleslaus I and probably the mother of Dobrava cannot be the same as Biagota, but many points to the Slavníks family (passages about the Přemyslid and Slavník kinship in the legend of the monk Kristián, Dobrava’s brother). The report from Bruno of Querfurt on the murder in Libice (995) does not prove that the Slavníks were the grandchildren of Boleslaus I, but nevertheless older relatives of both families can also be assumed (from the 9th century). The cultural ambitions of the Přemyslids at the time of Dobrava’s wedding to Mieszko are evidenced, among other things, by her sister’s journey to Rome in 967 (the later dating to 972 is not realistic).
Translation by Sean Miller

Čapský Martin – Čapská Veronika
Krev v kalichu, víno v číši.
K sociální praxi a materialitě zbožnosti utrakvismu … S. 335
(Blood in a Chalice, Wine in a Goblet:
On the social practice and materiality of the piety of Utraquism)

The study uses the methodological approaches of the so-called new materiál culture and, through their prism, looks at several issues related to the religious practice of reception sub utraque specie in the 15th and 16th centuries. The first of the problems hitherto little reflected on is related to the practice of serving a large number of believers, the second to innovating the shape of the chalice and using special large goblets with a tube/pipe, which facilitated pouring the transformed wine into smaller goblets and serving the believers. The third area of the authors’ interest is the question of the use of private chalices for reception by more affluent social strata, which would show the limits of the original radical inclusiveness of reception sub utraque specie. The analysis of church accounts recording the consumption of wine in the Utraquist liturgy supports a thesis about a significant decline in enthusiasm associated with the early reform period and frequent reception by the laity, which was significantly influenced by Lutheranism. Furthermore, the authors provide and discuss evidence of the practice of donating and using private chalices by laity.
Keywords: Utraquism – Material Culture – Piety – Wine – Chalice – Late Middle Ages – Early Modern History – Bohemia

The authors of the presented study analyse the pious practice of reception sub utraque specie and its changes in the 15th and 16th centuries in the milieu of Bohemian royal towns. In their text, they rely on the theoretical approaches of the socalled new material culture and connect textual and material hermeneutics. The so-called turn to materiality emphasises, among other things, the need to study the socio-economic contexts of the origin and use of material culture objects, including their trajectories after the loss of their original function or utility – either by simple wear and tear or breakage, or by a change in social situation when in the new contexts the artefact could no longer perform its former function.
In the study, the authors correct some conclusions of earlier research on the practice of Utraquist reception (Lydia and Josef Petráň) and formulate several new, interconnected questions. In the first place, they point out how little professional interest has been paid so far to the issue of reception under both species on the level of religious service practice as well as in terms of obtaining wine and its consumption. The second set of questions asks about the function and forms of innovation in the shape of the Mass chalice in the form of a rolled or coiled edge, the so-called tube or pipe (cf. Fig. Nr. 1 and 2). From the analysed sources it can be deduced that in the Utraquist services, the priests either chose to transfer the transformed wine into several cups, or used a special cup with a large volume, the edge of which was rolled into a tube (pipe). From there, the transformed wine was poured into smaller goblets. The third set of questions is connected with the phenomenon of pious gifts, the possible movement of chalices between home and sanctuary space and the existence of so-called private or family chalices. The inventories of Utraquist churches document the concurrent possession of up to several dozen chalices, often obtained from burgher donations. In addition to the most common method – donating money or precious metal to obtain a chalice – there were also donations of chalices, which the burghers had in their possession and which they used to receive Communion for themselves or family members. The limits of the original radical inclusiveness of receiving sub utraque specie were thus revealed through the example of the use of private chalices for reception by wealthier social classes, which is evidenced by our source indications.
Research inspired by the approaches of the new material culture also includes the historical-anthropological conception of the gifts of the chalices as objects of exchange. Through them, among other things, relationships within the relevant community were created or confirmed and materialized. In addition to donations of chalice or wine from their own vineyards, the internalization of the values of the Utraquist community was demonstrated by the participation in frequent Communion, characteristic especially of the initial stages of the Hussite movement. However, an analysis of several preserved accounting books from the town’s churches shows that this religious practice changed and the frequency of reception of Communion was reduced in the second half of the 16th century at the latest. At the same time, reports of donated chalices disappear from the sources several decades before the defeat of the Protestant party at the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War. Through the study of material culture, it is thus possible to significantly intervene in the discussion of religious development in post-Hussite Bohemia.
Translation by Sean Miller

Raška Jakub
Aristokracie práce a výzva socialismu.
Typografové v Praze v kontextu proměn
předlitavské dělnické kultury v letech 1890–1914 … S. 371
(The Labour Aristocracy and the Challenge of Socialism:
Typographers in Prague in the context of the transformations
in Cisleithanian workers’ culture in 1890–1914)

This study deals with skilled employees of Prague book printers at the turn of the 20th century. Typographers have traditionally had a reputation as elite and elitist workers. In addition, they were active participants in public patriotic life in Prague in the 1860s-1880s. After 1890, however, their main provincial organisation, the Typographic Club, became involved in building a united workers’ movement under the auspices of socialism. The study examines the activities of several typographers-socialists within the structures of social democracy and the reaction of skilled typographers, i.e., the members of the Typographic Club, to the change of rhetoric and strategies of their organisation. It also focuses on how the Typographic Club mastered some cultural practices of the socialist movement (e.g., May Day celebrations, engagement in a unified socialist educational institution or the change in the relationship with unskilled workers). Using the example of the engagement of the Typographic Club in the Dělnická knihtiskárna a nakladatelství [Workers’ Printing Office and Publishing House], it shows the conflicting areas in which the typographic organisation began to split ideologically at the end of the century.
Keywords: Workers‘ movement – Typographers – History of Book Printing – Cisleithania – May Day – Prag – Wien – Karl Höger – Typografická beseda – Karel Krunert – František J. Čermák – Jan Jelínek


NODL Martin
Potřebujeme sociální a hospodářské dějiny středověku? … S. 409
(Do we need social and economic history of the Middle Ages?)

The polemically tuned discussion text reflects on the unfortunate situation of research on the social and economic history of the Middle Ages in contemporary Czech medievalism. It indicates the absence of an institutional background for research on socio-historical issues of the Middle Ages, provides a critical overview of the development of research in social and economic history of the Middle Ages from the 1930s to the present, points to the specificity of socio-historical approaches and considers the pitfalls of sociohistorical research and the reasons for the lack of interest of the younger generation of adepts of historical science in the social and economic history of the Middle Ages.
Keywords: social history – modern historiography – history of science – methodology

In his polemically tuned text, the author reflects on the unfortunate situation of research on the social and economic history of the Middle Ages in contemporary Czech medievalism. He points out the absence of an institutional background for research on socio-historical issues of the Middle Ages after 1945, when in Marxist historiography the socio-historical issues dissolved into historiography as a whole. He understands this situation as paradoxical, because at the rhetorical level Marxist historiography placed paramount emphasis on socio-historical aspects. In confrontation with the research of the 1950s and 1960s and the historiography of the period of normalization, he shows that in the 1970s and 1980s, promising and developing research in the social and economic history of the Middle Ages declined for various reasons, and according to the author this situation affects the state of socio-historical research to this day. He tries to show using a few examples of what socio-historical research is necessary, even essential, in contemporary historiography. At the same time, he emphasizes that, unlike other approaches to contemporary historiography, the socio-historical approach examines and interprets society as a whole and consciously opposes the atomization of research and excessive professional specialisation. At the same time, they reflect on the pitfalls of sociohistorical research and why social and economic history of the Middle Ages is an unattractive topic for students and young adepts of historical science today.
Translation by Sean Miller

Obzory literatury / Review articles and reviews


Pavlína RYCHTEROVÁ – Gábor KL ANICZAY – Pawel KRAS – Walter POHL (eds.)
Times of upheaval: Four medievalists in twentieth-century Central Europe: Conversations with Jerzy Kłoczowski, János M. Bak, František Šmahel, and Herwig Wolfram … S. 427
(Jiří Pešek)

Vergessen, Verändern, Verschweigen. Damnatio memoriae im frühen Mittelalter … S. 433
(Martin Nodl)

Rainer NEU
Willibrord und die Christianisierung Europas im Frühmittelalter … S. 436
(Martin Šenk)

Jace STUCKEY (ed.)
The Legend of Charlemagne. Envisioning Empire in the Middle Ages … S. 439
(Peter Bučko)

Bernard z Clairvaux. Chiméra svého století … S. 443
(Zuzana Smetanová)

Albert ze Šternberka. Arcibiskup, zakladatel, mecenáš a diplomat doby Karla IV. … S. 447
(Vojtěch Večeře)

Služebníci pod zákonem. Zlatý věk řeholních kongregací v českobudějovické diecézi … S. 453
(Ivana Čornejová)

Rytíři, dámy a poutníci. Dějiny a současnost Rytířského řádu Božího hrobu jeruzalémského a jeho působení v českých zemích … S. 455
(Jaroslav Pánek)

Claire MADL – Michael WÖGERBAUER – Petr PÍŠA
Na cestě k „výborně zřízenému knihkupectví“. Protagonisté, podniky a sítě knižního trhu v Čechách (1749–1848) … S. 461

Claire MADL – Petr PÍŠA – Michael WÖGERBAUER
Buchwesen in Böhmen 1749–1848. Kommentiertes Verzeichnis der Drucker, Buchhändler, Buchbinder, Kupfer- und Steindrucker … S. 461
(Magdaléna Pokorná)

Ludvík Salvátor Toskánský (1847–1915), vědec a cestovatel.
Z historie habsburské linie v Toskánsku … S. 466
(Jaroslav Pánek)

Nobilitierungen unter der Regentschaft Kaiser Karl I./IV.
Károly király (1916–1921) … S. 470
(Jan Županič)

Heimisch werden durch Geschichte. Ústí nad Labem 1945–2017 … S. 474
(Tomáš Okurka)

Stanislav HOLUBEC
Nešťastná revolucionářka. Myšlenkový svět a každodennost Luisy Landové-Štychové (1885–1969) … S. 478
(Marie Macková)

Marcela RUSINKO – Vít VLNAS (eds.)
Sobě ke cti, umění ke slávě. Čtyři století uměleckého sběratelství v českých zemích … S. 482
(Sixtus Bolom-Kotari)

Zprávy o literatuře … S. 487

Z vědeckého života / Chronicle


Alois Mosser (11. května 1937 – 22. dubna 2022)
(Jana Geršlová) … S. 505

Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … S. 509
Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … S. 509

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