test Český časopis historický / The Czech Historical Review 120 (2022), 3–4 | H-Soz-Kult. Kommunikation und Fachinformation für die Geschichtswissenschaften | Geschichte im Netz | History in the web

Český časopis historický / The Czech Historical Review 120 (2022), 3–4

Titel der Ausgabe 
Český časopis historický / The Czech Historical Review 120 (2022), 3–4

Anzahl Seiten
526 S.
Jahresabonnement (4 Ausgaben) € 110



Český časopis historický / The Czech Historical Review
Czech Republic
Institute of History of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prosecká 76, CZ-190 00 Praha 9 – Nový Prosek
Vojtěch Szajkó, Historický ústav, Akademie věd České republiky

Český časopis historický 120 (2022) 3–4



„S’en puis parler plus clerement“.
Guillaume de Machaut jako dvorský úředník a básník na dvoře
Jana Lucemburského (ca 1323–1346) … S. 541
(“S’en puis parler plus clerement”:
Guillaume de Machaut as court officer and poet at the court
of John of Luxembourg [ca 1323–1346])

Guillaume de Machaut (†1377) is known as a cleric, almoner, notary, secretary and poet at the court of the King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg, John of Luxembourg (1296–1346). The study analyses diplomatic, administrative and narrative sources related to Machaut’s work at John’s court, as well as the earliest manuscript with a “collected” work of Machaut (BN, ms.fr. 1586). The integration of these sources into the historical context of the reign of John of Luxembourg provides new information regarding the clerics of John’s chancellery, the relationship between Machaut’s work and the Chronicon Aulae Regiae, and new hypotheses regarding Machaut’s narrative compositions (dits), which were or could have been written for the king of Bohemia.
Keywords: Guillaume de Machaut – John of Luxembourg – Chronicon Aulae Regiae – manuscript BN, ms.fr. 1586 – medieval French literature – literary patron

The study deals with the work of Guillaume de Machaut at the court of John of Luxembourg from the point of view of three types of sources: diplomatic and administrative sources, narrative sources and the earliest manuscript with the “collected” work of Machaut (BN, ms.fr. 1586), which contains works written for John of Luxembourg. On the basis of the diplomatic sources, it outlines Machaut’s joining of John’s service in the context of the restoration of Luxembourg-French relations (1322), which included an annuity that John of Luxembourg received from the French king Charles IV the Fair. At John’s court, Machaut mainly performed tasks related to John’s finances and his military duties to the French king, but he also worked in John’s chancellery, especially in relation to other French-speaking courts (Hainaut). He entered John’s service as a young cleric and over time became a wellknown poet and musician (from the 1330s). However, he only started writing narrative poetry for John of Luxembourg after the king became blind, for which he probably acquired a copy of the Chronicon Aulae Regiae, the motifs of which appear in his literary works. He then used the Chronicon Aulae Regiae again in 1357, when he wrote an exemplary portrait of John of Luxembourg in the work Le Confort d’Ami (Comfort for a Friend) dedicated to the king of Navarre Charles of Évreux. It is possible to read and interpret through the optics of Machaut’s work at John’s court and the historical circumstances of John’s life and reign four of the five dits contained in manuscript C (BN, ms.fr. 1586). Whereas Le Dit dou vergier (The Tale of the Garden), Le Dit dou lyon (The Tale of the Lion) and Le Jugement dou roy de Behaingne (The Judgement of the King of Bohemia) had already been linked to John of Luxembourg by earlier researchers, the study proposes to link with John of Luxembourg also Le Dit de l’alerion ou des quatre oiseaux (The Tale of the Alerion or the Four Birds). A heraldic interpretation of the dit is suggested as a hypothesis, i.e. that the four birds of prey represent the acquisitions of the Luxembourg dynasty, namely the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Holy Roman Empire (= the alerion), Poland (Silesia) and Italy (Lucca etc.). This reading roughly corresponds with John’s seals that display birds of prey (mostly eagles) and above all his earliest seal (1310) which depicts the primogenitus of Henry VII as a falconer. In the conclusion, the possibility that Machaut remained connected with Charles IV as one of the supporters of his French policy is outlined.
Translated by Sean Mark Miller

SANDER-FAES Stephan Karl
Herrschaft, Steuern und Bürokratie nach dem Weißen Berg:
Die Eggenberger Herrschaften und der Habsburgisch-Ständische
Verwaltungsapparat (c. 1650–1720) … S. 607
(Domination, Taxation, and Bureaucracy after White Mountain:
The Eggenberg Domains and the Habsburg-Territorial Administrative State [c. 1650–1720])

This essay addresses an established research field from a new perspective: first, Bohemia was a “metropolitan province” (Huw Bowen, Andrew MacKillop) of the Habsburg monarchy. Second, by reflecting on current research subsumed by the term “fiscal-military state” (John Brewer), although my focus does not rest on the conventionally favoured elites and central authorities, but rather on the effects of their actions outside Vienna and Prague. Third, to gain new insights into the dynamics of domination, taxation, and state transformation, it is essential to examine the application of bureaucratic know-how in everyday administration “on the ground” in the regional offices and individual lordships.
Based on the fiscal records of the Eggenberg possessions in southern Bohemia, located in the Bechin and Prachin regions, I investigate the intersections of local/central and social/political power differentials. Moving beyond existing research, I (re)connect diet resolutions and fiscal documents to identify the variety of state and non-state actors involved in the dynamics commonly referred to as “taxation”. Thus emerges a reconstruction of the points of contact between public and sovereign administrative apparatuses, which reveals a wealth of new insights into the functioning of the tax system, its diversity, and its spatial as well as temporal characteristics.
This investigation is embedded in the “larger” contexts of current work on the complex of topics of war, taxation, and state-building, whereby the results also offer food for thought about the role of Bohemia within the Habsburg monarchy. The continuing importance of “domination” for the functioning of public administration further suggests that the reservations cited by crime historians about both the informative value of sources and access, as well as to the differences between “norms” (diet resolutions) and “practices” (everyday administration) may also be applied to the closely intertwined topics of war, taxation, administration and “state transformation” (Charles Tilly).
Keywords: Domination – Bureaucracy – State Transformation – Bohemia – Habsburg Monarchy

It is epistemologically fruitful to study “composite domination” within the same framework as bureaucracy, taxation, and the “fiscal-military state” (John Brewer). Analysis of a representative sample of tax records from the seigneurial holdings of the Eggenberg points to both the continued importance of these “arcana dominiationis” (Josef Pekař) and the fundamental significance of everyday administrative life beyond and (or) outside Vienna and Prague. The sources examined here show two meta-trends: on the one hand, it is clear that, whatever the intentions for Vienna or Prague were, every policy implementation before the mid-eighteenth century depended primarily on seigneurial officials, both “on the ground” in the various lordships and on the clerks in the regional offices. On the other hand, the emerging “fiscal-military state” was also based to a large extent on a series of paraor entirely illegal decisions – especially by the territorial offices and officials – that were, at least partially, subsequently confirmed (approved) by the Bohemian diet. These procedural shenanigans are particularly evident in taxation.
These multidimensional findings have so far hardly had any impact on the established research literature on the Habsburg Monarchy, to say nothing about the other areas of early modern Europe. The fiscal records of post-1620 Bohemia contain sufficient evidence of the increasing interconnectedness – collaboration – between the imperial court, the territorial authorities, and between state and nonstate (estate) actors. This has been emphasised for decades by “international” research, yet, these notions have been only selectively taken up by scholars working in, or on, Central Europe, as can be exemplarily observed in the writings of Tomáš Knoz, William Godsey, Petr Maťa, or Thomas Winkelbauer. The oft-discussed interrelatedness between war, taxation, and state-building after the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) focuses primarily on political aspects and intra-elite communication, with only very limited consideration given to (parts) of the official channels. Virtually everything is ignored that occurred outside Vienna and Prague or below the level of the regional offices, to say nothing about the seigneurial holdings that remained the “structural foundation” of public administration after 1620, according to Eduard Maur. It is precisely in these contexts where we can not only identify a variety of new insights, if only scholarship could muster more interest in the field of the “arcana patrimonialis”, as Josef Pekař pointed out more than a century ago.
Whether analysed qualitatively or quantitatively, seigneurial tax records – analysed here using the example of the Eggenberg’s Bohemian estates – provide a wealth of new insights into the realities of everyday administration beyond the normative instructions promulgated by the Viennese court, the central authorities, or the royal and estates’ Bohemian institutions (which have not yet been systematically studied to date either). In this context, it is also worth taking a close look at Crime History, which, in view of the oft-discussed tensions between “norms” and “practices”, has for some time emphasised bespoke reservations. Jaroslav Pánek’s assessment that “these sources” – in the present context, e.g., territorial diet resolutions, rescripts or documents issued by central administrative bodies – “hardly provide a comprehensive picture of their effect and implementation” on what went on at the regional or seigneurial levels. Yet, these considerations (reservations) should also apply to research on domination, taxation, and state transformation until (at least) around the middle of the eighteenth century, if not beyond. Evidence from the Krumau-based seigneurial records suggests that the conventionally invoked (assumed) causalities of warfare, state-building, and bureaucratisation should at least be relativised, if not thoroughly reconsidered.
At first glance, this may seem to contradict the “Tilly thesis” of war-induced state-formation, which serves as the bedrock for the majority studies on central institutions, financial history, and public administration of the Habsburg Monarchy. In view of my findings deriving from everyday administrative life in post-White Mountain Bohemia, however, it seems more realistic to speak of various manifestations of “systemic overload”, especially apparent in the decades around the turn of the eighteenth century. At first glance, this may seem contradictory; yet, this interpretation gains weight not only via comparisons made by Victoria Tin-bor Hui but also in view of Tilly’s posthumously published reflections on war and state-building: the former considers, for example, recourse to military contractors, mercenaries, (forced) loans, foreign financiers, and the continued importance of non-state actors as “deforming” forces that worked against state integration in the Chinese experience. Of additional importance here is that Tilly himself has recently clearly criticised the often quasi-teleological readings of his scholarship from half a century ago. By contrast, his latest insights into what Tilly calls “state transformation” have, so far, not been taken up by either the Oxford Bibliographies (as of this writing) or most scholars working on these topics. Here is hoping that this contribution will go a long way towards changing these matters.

Count Franz Anton von Sporck and His Books:
Official and Clandestine Book Printing in Early 18th Century Europe … S. 653
(Hrabě František Antonín Špork a jeho knihy.
Oficiální a tajný tisk knih v Evropě na počátku 18. století)

This article examines the complex publication networks around Count Franz Anton von Sporck (1662–1738) in Central Europe. Sporck was concerned with the dissemination of non-conformist religious literature, which, in addition to Jansenist authors, included a broad spectrum of heterodox works ranging from anti-Jesuit to pietist and spiritualist ideas. Publishing networks across national borders were crucial for the publication of censored writings: Sporck’s correspondence reveals an elaborate, far-reaching publishing network that the count used, among other things, to publish Jansenist writings. The article presents new research results on Sporck’s publication networks, especially after Nuremberg. In case studies, the predominantly clandestine trade in religious literature in Bohemia is examined and the publishing contacts around Count Sporck are determined more precisely.
Keywords: Book History – Publishing Networks – Censorship – Habsburg Monarchy – Early Modern History – Eighteenth Century – Jansenism – Bohemia – Nuremberg – Count Franz Anton von Sporck

Tento článek zkoumá složité publikační sítě, jež vznikly ve střední Evropě kolem hraběte Františka Antonína Šporka (1662–1738). Špork usiloval o šíření nekonformní náboženské literatury, která kromě jansenistických autorů zahrnovala široké spektrum heterodoxních děl od protijezuitských až po pietistické a spiritualistické myšlenky.
Kromě Prahy a častých cest do Vídně trávil Špork většinu času na svých panstvích v Kuksu a Lysé nad Labem, kde udržoval soukromé tiskárny. Pokud mu v tom nebránila cenzurní opatření, vydával Špork uvedené tisky anonymně ve svých tiskárnách a zajišťoval jejich co nejširší distribuci. Často šlo o překlady z francouzštiny. Jeho dvě dcery Marie Eleonora a Anna Kateřina sehrály důležitou roli při překládání raných děl a jako nezávislé tlumočnice.
Na jedné straně měly být tisky distribuovány mezi místní obyvatelstvo Šporkových panství jako nástroj náboženské výchovy, na druhé straně se Špork snažil získat pro své spisy otevřeně smýšlející šlechtice u vídeňského dvora. Špork byl s císařem a s císařskými úřady v dlouhodobém napětí kvůli různým právním sporům. Navíc jeho nepovolená vydavatelská činnost přinášela silný konfliktní potenciál, jak dokládá konfiskační řízení namířené proti hraběti. V roce 1711 byla na příkaz arcibiskupské konzistoře Šporkova tiskárna v Lysé uzavřena a tiskařské stroje a tiskoviny zabaveny.
Pro vydávání cenzurovaných spisů byly zásadně důležité vydavatelské sítě přesahující hranice Šporkových panství. Článek se zabývá šířením nábožensky nekonformní literatury v Čechách a předkládá nové poznatky o Šporkových vydavatelských sítích, zejména směrem k Norimberku. Na případových studiích je zkoumán převážně tajný obchod s náboženskou literaturou v Čechách a jsou přesněji určeny vydavatelské sítě kolem hraběte Šporka. Šporkova korespondence odhaluje propracovanou, daleko sahající vydavatelskou síť, kterou hrabě využíval například k vydávání jansenistických spisů. Vydání jeho autobiografie Leben eines herrlichen Bildes wahrer und rechtschaffener Frömmigkeit (1717), která obsahovala i rozsáhlý soubor jeho soudních spisů, připravoval několik let norimberský nakladatel Friedrich Roth-Scholtz. Kromě toho Špork těžil také z výjimečné role říšského města v oboru mědirytectví, jak dokládá usazení rytce Michaela Heinricha Rentze v Kuksu.
Knihkupci jako Roth-Scholtz, Johann Friedrich Rüdiger a Peter Conrad Monath z Norimberka podléhali v habsburské monarchii obchodním omezením kvůli své protestantské náboženské orientaci. V oficiální distribuci prezentovali cenzuře vyhovující sortiment. Časté příkazy ke konfiskaci ukazují, že ačkoli se úřady staraly o kontrolu knižního trhu, zejména zahraniční obchodníci využívali četné skuliny k distribuci podezřelých nebo cenzurovaných knih prostřednictvím alternativních distribučních kanálů.
Článek seznamuje s oficiálními a tajnými knihkupeckými vazbami v Čechách na počátku 18. století. Podrobně analyzuje nakladatelské vztahy kolem Šporka na příkladu stěžejního vydání knihy Das Christliche Jahr, překladu díla L’Année Chrétienne od Nicolase Le Tourneux. Spektrum vydávání Šporkových spisů je uvedeno do širšího kontextu. Článek je zakončen úvahou o možnostech budoucího výzkumu.

ŠEDIVÝ Miroslav
Vliv mezinárodních událostí na postoj Němců vůči Čechům
v letech 1839 až 1848 … S. 679
(The influence of international events on the attitude
of the Germans towards the Czechs in 1839 through 1848)

The revolutionary year of 1848 is considered a watershed in Czech-German relations. The aim of the study is to point out the fact that these relations were characterised by greater continuity and their deterioration occurred gradually from the end of the 1830s at the latest. The main cause of this process was the influence of international events on the attitude of the German public, who eventually came to believe that relations between states and nations were increasingly defined by jus manuarium (law of the jungle) instead of the written law. One of the consequences of this feeling of insecurity was the tendency to perceive other states and nations as potential threats. In the end, the Czechs also became a potential threat, and therefore the question of their own security became a fundamental factor in the formation of the German attitude towards the Czech nation and at the same time
the Czech lands.
Keywords: Germans – Czechs – concept of security – nationalism – pan-Germanism – pan-Slavism – international relations – Kraków – Rhine crisis – Vormärz (Pre-March) Period – 1848

The traditional assessment of 1848 as a milestone in the development of Czech-German relations is undoubtedly a useful historical shorthand, but still only a shorthand. Even today, some specialised works offer evidence of greater continuity in the deterioration of relations between the Czechs and Germans. This proces was to have started earlier. Sometimes, in this regard, the important influence of the so-called Rhine Crisis of 1840 is mentioned, which, according to some historians, caused a wave of national chauvinism among the Germans and at the same time a radical change in their attitude towards the Czechs.
However, a question mark still hangs over why the Rhine crisis should have affected the relations between Germans and Czechs, when the latter ethnicity was not affected in any way. The historical production of the last two decades also challenges the thesis of a national chauvinistic response within German society. This study seeks to explain both processes, which were closely related. In accord with the thesis about the continuity of the increase in German animosity towards the Czechs and the significant role of the Rhine crisis, it provides hitherto neglected primary sources and at the same time a new methodological approach that replaces the national perspective with the concept of security.
This innovation makes it possible to understand nationalism not as a cause, but as a consequence of a larger process in German and European society, namely the increase in insecurity due to the violation of international law and the abuse of power in international relations. This is precisely how the Rhine crisis and many other disputes and armed conflicts in Europe and overseas were perceived negatively. Contemporaries not only paid close attention to them, but also discussed them and offered various solutions to increase the security of their own state or nation in a world that appeared to be predatory.
In the case of the Germans, this process was extraordinarily strong, due not only to the legacy of the Rhine crisis and the impact of other international events, but also to the geographical location of the German Confederation. The opinion that they were living in dangerous times and surrounded by dangerous neighbours grew stronger among its inhabitants. The reaction was not only an effort to strengthen one’s own security, including by securing an easily-defendable border, but also a tendency to perceive other states and nations as a threat. Both significantly influenced the attitude of the Germans towards the Czech nation and the Czech lands, especially after the uprising of the Poles and the subsequent annexation of Kraków in 1846. Distrust of the Czechs as the fifth column of Russia and Pan-Slavism, and at the same time the belief in the geostrategic importance of Bohemia and Moravia for the defensibility of the German Confederation, had a negative impact on the quality of Czech-German relations already before 1848. During this period, this process became quite obvious.
Translation by Sean Miller

NEŠPOR Zdeněk R.
Bohoslužebné objekty Církve československé (husitské)
v kvantitativní optice … S. 713
(The places of worship of the Czechoslovak [Hussite] Church
in quantitative optics)

Through a quantitative methodology, the study analyses the places of worship of the Czechoslovak (Hussite) Church, which was established in 1920 as a secession from the Roman Catholic Church and became the second (today the fourth) largest Czech church. At the beginning of its existence, the church took over 132 Roman Catholic churches and chapels and later tried to at least share them, but within a few years it had to give up most of the illegally taken objects. Therefore, before the mid-1920s, it began the large-scale construction of its own churches (following the example of the old Unity of the Brethren, called congregations), which lasted until the beginning of the 1940s. The result was 143 new congregational buildings, a significant part of which used progressive architectural features, and another 55 congregations were created by adapting other buildings (including several synagogues). However, despite the great dedication of church members and the support of the state, it was not possible to secure their own cult spaces for all the then existing religious communities, the number of which also increased after the end of the Second World War (mainly due to the resettlement of the borderlands). The solution was to take over (60) churches of the abolished German Protestant Church and other (46) synagogues, as well as a large number of other buildings – from 1945 to the present, only 13 new church buildings were built, while 350 other buildings were only taken over by the church or adapted for its own purposes. If the communist regime relatively supported the Czechoslovak (Hussite) Church in the late 1940s and 1950s, a direct or indirect negative consequence of this support was a lower longterm usefulness of the respective buildings. While 162 (80 %) of the congregational buildings acquired by the church before 1943 are still serving today, only 193 (54 %) of the later buildings are still serving.
Keywords: Czechoslovak Hussite Church – modern religion – Czechoslovakia 1918–1992 – church – congregational (meeting) house – prayer hall – modern church architecture

Like other religious communities, the Czechoslovak (Hussite) Church needed and still needs places of worship – churches, prayer rooms, and possibly others (in this case, free-standing bell towers were also locally and temporally significant); during the entire period of its existence (since 1920), this Church has used 693 places of worship. The initial effort of the Church was to acquire or co-use originally Roman Catholic churches, in 1920–21, 74 Roman Catholic churches and 14 chapels were seized, and another 44 buildings were lent to the new church by the towns and villages that owned them. Although the Church tried to legally anchor these acquisitions, it was not successful and had to return the vast majority of objects within a few years. Renting places of worship turned out to be a temporary, but symbolically and otherwise not very suitable solution, however, the Czechoslovak Church already started new buildings before the mid-1920s. At first, their design and construction were rather chaotic, which was reflected in unsystematic localization and insufficiently thought-out search for functional and architectonic forms. However, by the beginning of the 1930s, these problems were mostly overcomed. Until the wartime building restrictions (1942), the Czechoslovak Church was able to build 144 new church buildings (churches, prayer halls, congregational houses), a significant part of which reflected not only the church’s liturgical needs, but also progressive architectural features. Another 55 buildings were acquired by the church through adaptation, including several former synagogues. Most of the religious communities of the Czechoslovak Church thus acquired places of worship during the first twenty years of its existence (partially thanks to several forms of state support), significantly faster than in the case of any other Czech church. After the end of the Second World War, a completely different situation arose, the Church continued to grow and expand into new areas (the so-called borderlands, from where the German-speaking population had been expelled), but at the same time it fundamentally limited its own construction activities. In the first post-war years, there were neither the strength nor the means for it, but it was not even necessary: the Czechoslovak Church took over 60 churches of the abolished German Protestant Church, 46 synagogues unnecessary due to the Holocaust, and another 45 religious and secular buildings, most of which they did not even modify structurally. Political support continued even in the first years of the communist regime, when the Church acquired another 182 places of worship between 1950 and 1967 (at the same time, however, it also began to lose some of them), thus its long-term need was effectively saturated. There were practically no new buildings during this period (from 1945 to the present, the Church has built only 13 of them), nor was the adaptation and maintenance of converted buildings sufficient. The result of the absence of maintenance and the growing anti-Church pressure during the so-called normalisation period, as well as the rapidly advancing secularisation of society, was the abandonment of a number of existing places of worship (69 cases), which continued after 1989 (76 cases), now mainly for economic reasons. However, it was only after the fall of the communist regime that there could be a few new constructions of sacred buildings and further modifications of their network, which has again begun to reflect real socio-economic possibilities of the individual religious communities and Church as a whole.

British and Soviet male veterans’ perception of the issue of women’s military service in the Second World War … S. 747
(Vnímání problematiky vojenské služby žen ve druhé světové válce britskými a sovětskými válečnými veterány)

Great Britain and the Soviet Union recruited women into the army on an unprecedented scale during the Second World War. This was due to a significant shortage of male personnel reserves. As a result, the exclusively masculine nature of the armed forces of these countries was questioned. In this paper, an attempt is made to compare the peculiarities of the perception of women’s entry into the military by British and Soviet servicemen and their interaction with sisters-in-arms during the war.
Keywords: servicemen – servicewomen – Second World War – personal reminiscences – USSR – Great Britain

Běžným trendem v pamětech vojenských veteránů ve Velké Británii a v SSSR bylo, že u příslušnic ozbrojených sil kladly mnohem větší důraz na jejich vzhled a chování coby zástupkyň opačného pohlaví a potenciálních nevěst než na úspěchy, kterých dosáhly jako specialistky ve svém oboru. Příběhy britských i sovětských válečných veteránů obsahují sexismus a objektifikaci žen. Přitom existuje zřetelný rozdíl mezi počtem zmínek o vojačkách v pamětech britských a sovětských válečných veteránů. Dále platí, že příklady moralizování a předsudků vůči sexuálnímu chování příslušnic ozbrojených sil jsou mnohem častější v pamětech bývalých sovětských vojáků. Ve vzpomínkách britských veteránů oproti tomu mnohem častěji narazíme na objektifikaci žen a na podrobné příběhy schůzek a toho, jak vojáci trávili čas se svými budoucími manželkami. Důvodem je ovšem skutečnost, že britští vojáci se se svými sestrami ve zbrani ve službě setkávali méně často, protože mnoho mužů sloužilo v zahraničí a většina žen ve své vlasti. Ve Velké Británii bylo použití zbraní ženami oficiálně zakázáno a ženám nebylo dovoleno plnit bojové úkoly. To značně omezovalo rozsah jejich vojenských povinností i spolupráce s jejich druhy mužského pohlaví. Známosti se tudíž často navazovaly o dovolených britských vojáků a vojaček. Sovětské ozbrojené síly byly oproti tomu nuceny svou zemi bránit na svém území, pročež byly ženy v jejich řadách početnější, jejich zodpovědnosti byly širší a sloužily i v bojových pozicích. Sovětští muži tudíž měli více příležitosti vidět své sestry ve zbrani při plnění jejich povinností. Kromě toho, jak bylo zmíněno výše, je třeba vzít v potaz dobu, kdy byly záznamy vytvořeny, a porovnat je se současnou genderovou politikou. Zatímco orgány současného Ruska věnují problémům genderové nerovnosti a sexismu menší pozornost, Velká Británie přijala v posledních desetiletích množství opatření k tomu, aby rozsah těchto negativních jevů omezila.
I přes výrazné rozdíly mezi demokratickými a totalitními režimy 40. let 20. století, dostával se v těchto zemích do popředí patriarchální charakter jejich společností, co se týče genderových hierarchií, obzvláště v ozbrojených silách. Paměti vojáků obou zemí proto obsahují množství podobných předsudků týkajících se služby žen v armádě, jež vedly ke značným těžkostem jejích příslušnic, které odpověděly na volání své vlasti a bránily ji za druhé světové války.
Překlad Milan Rydvan

HOLUBEC Stanislav
České a polské Krkonoše 1945–1963:
Mezi ochranou přírody a modernizací … S. 777
(The Czech and Polish Krkonoše [Giant] Mountains 1945–1963:
Between Nature Conservation and Modernization)

The article deals with a comparison of the development of hiking, recreation and nature conservation in the Czech and Polish Giant Mountains from 1945 to the proclamation of the Krkonoše National Park in 1963. It shows the Czech side as less devastated after the war, in which the level of tourism quickly recovered and deepened, mainly due to trade union recreation, and there were intensive plans for the development of the tourist infrastructure, but it was postponed ad acta after 1948. On the contrary, the Polish side of the mountains experienced greater devastation, newcomers knew the area less and hiking tourism generally declined, which was strengthened by the closure of the mountain border by military units in the late 1940s. Despite this closure and the decline of infrastructures, Krkonoše hiking tourism survived during the 1950s. The new opening of the Krkonoše Mountains to cross-border traffic and the construction of infrastructures took place from the late 1950s. Whereas the issues of nature conservation have been widely discussed on the Czech side since 1945, the Polish side paid significantly less attention to them and they did not come to the fore until the second half of the 1950s.
Keywords: hiking – nature conservation – 1945–1963 – Krkonoše (Giant) Mountains – Poland – Czechoslovakia

The article compares hiking, recreation and nature conservation in the Czech and Polish Giant Mountains from 1945 to the proclamation of the Krkonoše National Park in 1959/1963 and examines cross-border contacts at that time. First, it compares the settlement of the mountains after the war and their “Slavicisation”. It shows that in the Czech case it was possible to continue the pre-war traditions of nature conservation and hiking tourism, while in the Polish case the hiking use of the mountains and nature conservation developed more slowly. Furthermore, in the Czech case it shows a higher degree of post-war politicisation of the mountains in the names of the mountain cottages and the application of the ideological demand of the socialist mountains after 1948, while in the Polish case the specific is a radical transformation of mountain names and villages often without any connection with the German names. It also shows that Czech-Polish relations were cordial at the declaratory level, but from the beginning they were somewhat clouded by Czech territorial claims, conflicts over Sněžka and the Polish closure of the ridge road. Cross-border cooperation fell sharply at the time of the overall closure of the borders during the peak of the Cold War in 1948-1956. The Polish decision to partially close the mountains due to clashes with anti-communist groups also damaged Czech hiking tourism, which closed the main part of the main ridge of the mountains for many years. Only the opening of the mountains for individual hiking tourism on the Polish side in 1956 meant a turnaround, and after 1961, cross-border hiking tourism began to rise rapidly. A significant difference was also that while hiking tourism on the southern side of the mountains quickly resumed and soon reached pre-war levels, on the northern side it stagnated and began to develop more significantly only in the late 1950s. On the Czech side, the pre-war hiking signs were restored and extended to the former German parts of the mountains by 1948, on the Polish side, the restoration was slower and more chaotic, and only in 1951 was the decision taken to adopt the Czech system.
The fundamental difference was the post-war Polish perception of the mountains as developed and undestroyed and the Czech idea of the mountains as having been damaged during the occupation, which must be raised and saved from further destruction. At that time, efforts were made on both sides of the mountains to build modern hiking tourist infrastructures, but this effort was more successful on the southern side. However, these projects were abandoned after 1948. There were plans to declare national parks, but everything was delayed in the context of border closures. A nature park was declared in Czechoslovakia in 1951, a national park in Poland in 1959 and the Czech national park only in 1963. There were also ecologically problematic attempts at mining ore or uranium on both sides during the 1950s. The level of care for the hiking tourist infrastructure was better on the Czech side throughout the period under review, although even here, there were complaints about the unsatisfactory condition of the mountain cottages from the late 1950s. Although German recreational facilities (cottages) were expropriated on both sides of the mountains, on the Polish side two majority owners (hiking organisations and trade unions) predominated from the beginning, on the contrary, on the Czech side, the process was more complicated, the cottages were redistributed through restitution to private owners, passed into the hands of various organisations or so-called national administrators. In the 1950s, they came under two dominant owners (ROH / Revolutionary Trade Union Movement/ and Hostinské podniky československé hotely /Hospitality Company of Czechoslovak Hotels/, later renamed Restaurace a Jídelny /Restaurants and Cafeterias/), and also became the property of individual companies.
Translation by Sean Miller


Historie a smysly: Dějiny smyslů jako směr historického bádání … S. 835
(History and the Senses: Sensory History as a Field of Historical Inquiry)

The aim of this article is to present sensory history as a bourgeoning and innovative field of historical inquiry. Although sensory history has been booming for over two decades, Czech historians do not seem to notice, reflect or include any of its new insights and approaches. The article focuses on the development of the field, starting with its “father“, the Annales’s historian Lucien Febvre, going through the foundational work of another French historian, Alain Corbin, to finish with the insights of the most prolific author and theoretician of the history of the senses, American historian M. M. Smith. Reflecting upon the strengths but also shortcomings of sensory history, the article emphasizes its interdisciplinary implications and highlights its biggest achievement, together with sensory anthropology, in challenging a traditional hierarchy of the senses as well as the belief in universal and natural character of the senses.
Keywords: Senses – Sensory Anthropology – Historiography – Theory of History – Cultural Turn – Alain Corbin – Emotions

The article explores the beginnings and growth of sensory history, a relatively new and innovative field of historical inquiry. It argues that sensory history has contributed to challenge the belief in universal and natural character of the senses as well as to oppose a traditional hierarchy of the senses.
In the introduction, the article demonstrates the explosion of sensory history by enumerating book series, academic journals and centres of sensory history. They are included into a larger field of sensory studies that have developed after a turn towards the sensuous. Observed in humanities and social sciences since the 1990s, the sensory turn can be compared to other important epistemological turns, such as the linguistic turn. Although the field has been flourishing for more than two decades, sensory history has not yet been conceptualized in the Czech study of history. Not only there are no Czech contributions to the field, there is also a lack of translations of foundational studies of the field.
The presentation of the topic starts with the description of the birth of sensory studies, as a reaction to the constructivist and linguistic theories of culture and history of the 1960s and 1970s. A reevaluation of the Cartesian paradigm of mind and body was another important factor in challenging a traditional predominance of the eye over the other senses of hearing, taste, smell and touch.
The critique of ocularcentrism, a bias ranking vision over other senses in Western culture, is one of the premises of sensory history. Media theorists Marshall McLuhan and Walter Ong were among the first to illustrate how the senses are connected to the cultural changes in Western societies, such as a transmission from orality to literacy.
Alain Corbin, a French historian „du sensible“, is considered a founding father of sensory history. His foundational studies are described as well as the works of his predecessors, Lucien Febvre and Robert Mandrou, both historians of the French Annales school.
The next section reflects upon sensory anthropology and its significance for conceptualizing the aims of sensory history. Constance Classen, a Canadian anthropologist, defined the field of the anthropology and history of the senses, pointing to a sociocultural dimension of the senses.
In his already over thirty years old article, Alain Corbin pondered about the challenges of sensory history for historians, advancing the knowledge of the „habitus“ as a precondition of any sensory explorations of the past. In the final section, the article highlights the attraction of sensory history for the public and considers a fusion of sensory history and the history of emotions as a possible future of the field.

Obzory literatury / Review articles and reviews


Petr PAVELEC – Martin GAŽI – Milena HAJNÁ (edd.)
Ve znamení Merkura. Šlechta českých zemí v evropské diplomacii … S. 859
(Tomáš Sterneck)

Kateřina ČAPKOVÁ – Hillel J. KIEVAL (eds.)
Židé v českých zemích. Společná cesta dějinami … S. 861
(Zdeněk R. Nešpor)

Documents Concerning Central Europe from the Hospital’s Rhodian Archives, 1314–1428 … S. 868
(Ivan Hlaváček)

Zwischen dem Reich und Ostmitteleuropa. Die Beziehungen
von Jagiellonen, Wettinern und dem Deutschen Orden (1386–1526) … S. 872
(Jaroslav Pánek)

Vladimír RŮŽEK
Dvě (propedeutické) studie ze starší české a evropské heraldiky … S. 875
I. Česká panovnická a šlechtická reprezentace v knihách erbů,
armoriálech a rolích do konce Václava IV.
II. Úřad krále erbů Ruwieren, Václav Lucemburský a Brabantský,
heroldi, jejich postavení a funkce
(František Šmahel)

Verwaltungsgeschichte der Habsburgermonarchie in der Frühen Neuzeit … S. 884
Band I/1-2: Hof und Dynastie, Kaiser und Reich, Zentralverwaltungen, Kriegswesen und landesfürstliches Finanzwesen
(Jaroslav Pánek)

Hungary between Two Empires 1526–1711 … S. 889
(Rostislav Smíšek)

Dirk Jacob JANSEN
Jacopo Strada and Cultural Patronage at the Imperial Court.
The Antique as Innovation … S. 893
(Jaroslav Pánek)

Bez zpěvů a bez zvonění. Dekriminalizace sebevraždy mezi sekularizací
a medikalizací v 17.–19. století … S. 900
(Václav Grubhoffer)

Objevení dějin. Dějepisectví, fikce a historický čas na přelomu 18. a 19. století … S. 904
(Jiří Hrbek)

Johannes FEICHTINGER – Brigitte MAZOHL
Die österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften 1847–2022.
Eine neue Akademiegeschichte I–III … S. 909
(Ivan Hlaváček)

George Frost KENNAN
Z Prahy po Mnichovu. Diplomatické zprávy 1938–1940 … S. 913
(Jiří Friedl)

Prezident lidskosti. Životní příběh Emila Háchy … S. 916
(Josef Tomeš)

Christiane BRENNER – Michal PULLMANN – Anja TIPPNER (eds.)
After Utopia. Czechoslovak Normalization between Experiment
and Experience, 1968–1989 … S. 923
(Zdeněk R. Nešpor)

Richard J. EVANS
Eric Hobsbawm. A Life in History … S. 927
(Jiří Lach)

Radim JEŽ – Lenka NOVÁKOVÁ – David PINDUR a kol.
Vratimov. Jedno město, dva příběhy … S. 934
(Lukáš Fasora)

Zprávy o literatuře … S. 939


Světový kongres historiků
XXIII. mezinárodní kongres historických věd v Poznani … S. 959
(Jaroslav Pánek a kolektiv)

The 23rd International Congress of Historical Sciences in Poznań was held under completely extraordinary conditions. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the Congress had to be postponed twice (2020/2021/2022) and, in addition, it was held at a time of financial, energy and war crises due to the Russian aggression against Ukraine. These facts led to a significant reduction in the number of Congress participants and to the cancellation of some panels. The transition to a (post-pandemic) hybrid form of communication also caused difficulties. Nevertheless, the Polish National Committee of Historians managed to organise the Congress at a decent level of scientific and representational quality. Nine of the Czech participants comment on the Congress from different perspectives in their extensive report. They evaluate it in terms of scientific and diplomatic preparation, structure, organisational level, publications issued, representation of individual countries and choice of Congress topics, etc. They compare the Poznań Congress with other world congresses held in 2022 (business history, Madrid; economic history, Paris) and reflect on the sustainability of the current form of international congresses in changing international and communication conditions. Considerable attention is also paid to the participation of Czech historians as co-organizers of one of the major themes, two round tables and one joint session.
Keywords: International Congresses of Historical Sciences – Polish National Committee of Historians – Czech historiography – Diplomacy of science – Hybrid communication – Covid-19 pandemic

Sjezd českých historiků
12. sjezd českých historiků v Ústí nad Labem
(pohledem tří doktorandů) … S. 1001
(Filip Binder – Jakub Raška – Michal Vokurka)

The Congress of Czech Historians in Ústí nad Labem was an important event in the field of Czech historiography. For the younger scholars, whose perspective is conveyed in the text, it was all the more important because in the past years, influenced by the pandemic, large events of this type hardly took place. The congress thus served as an unprecedentedly broad platform for making new contacts and exchanging knowledge. The contribution of the conference was enhanced by the participation of guests from abroad and from other fields close to historiography. The reflection on the congress published here highlights both those panels and topics that the authors of the text were able to attend and those that they consider stimulating for further research.
Keywords: Historiography – 12th Congress of Czech Historians in Ústí nad Labem – major themes – free panels – posters – awards

Z vědeckého života
Alain Soubigou – čestný člen Sdružení historiků ČR … S. 1013
(Michaela Hrubá – Jiří Kocian)

Jiří Kaše (6. srpna 1946 – 31. března 2022)
(Pavel Bělina) … S. 1017

Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … S. 1021
Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … S. 1021

Weitere Hefte ⇓
Veröffentlicht am
Weitere Informationen
Bestandsnachweise 0862-6111