Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien
BÁTORA, Jozef – TÓTH, Peter – RASSMANN, Knut – MÜLLER-SCHEEßEL, Nils
Vráble-Fidvár – centrálne sídlisko európskeho významu. Osídlenie zo staršej doby bronzovej (Vráble-Fidvár – central place of the European importance. Settlement from the Early Bronze Age)
The archaeological site Vráble-Fidvár belongs to one of the most well-known sites in Slovakia. Current field activities have been realized since 2007 within the framework of the joint Slovak-German project the aim of which has been to explore the origin, development and the fall of the fortified settlement from the viewpoint of a broad spectrum of research disciplines. A geo-magnetic survey of an area of 140 ha detected several components from Prehistory and Protohistory. Field-walking survey and excavation were carried out in different areas within the large settlement complex from the Early Bronze Age. They showed that the houses in the central part of the settlement (acropolis) differed from others in their architecture and building materials. Eastward and southward from the fortification, there are dozens of storage pits which may the evidence of different reserve management. The burial ground was located approximately 300 m south of the fortified area. Up till now there have been excavated 37 graves dated to the Únětice Culture; an absolute majority of them were secondarily opened. An important aspect of the formation of the Early Bronze Age settlement was a suitable geographical location and proximity to sources of the non-ferrous metal ores.
Keywords: Vráble-Fidvár, Early Bronze Age, Tell Settlement, Fortification, Burial Ground, Economic Bacground;
BELJAK PAŽINOVÁ, Noémi – ŠALIOVÁ, Soňa
Zabudnutý cintorín Kakathu objavený? (Kakath forgotten cemetery discovered?)
The contribution focuses on so far unpublished archaeological site in Štúrovo. It was excavated by the Department of Archaeology of the Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra during rescue archaeological excavation in 2009. It is represented by five inhumation graves from the High Middle Ages/Modern Age examined on the northern edge of town Štúrovo near the Danube river bank. The paper contains an analysis of the excavation units, and also seeks historical interpretation of the studied source.
Keywords: Štúrovo, Výskum, Kostrové hroby, Cintorín, Stredoveký Kakath, Novovek;
BISTÁK, Peter – BORZOVÁ, Zuzana – BORZA, Martin
Porovnanie výsledkov terénnej prospekcie a leteckého skenovania hradiska na Veľkom a Malom Lysci (Comparing the results of the terrain prospecting and airborne laser scanning of the hillfort on Veľký and Malý Lysec)
The multi-seasonal archaeological investigation of the Lusatian hillfort and its catchment area on the hilltop and slopes of Veľký and Malý Lysec (cadastral district Kostoľany pod Tribečom and Velčice) has brought interesting results in the recent years. They are mainly related to the study of material culture, identification of several settlement areas as well as the course of fortification. However, in non-destructive terrain research (i. e. identification, documenting and mapping) of immovable monuments in the forest environment and in the interpretation, using methods of remote landscape survey is almost inevitable. Airborne laser scanning and its further processing by means of an innovative method using Proxima technology is one of such methods; it has brought new knowledge in identification and interpretation of terrain relics on the studied hillfort. Comparing and evaluation of the main results of terrain prospecting and airborne laser scanning using Proxima technology is the basic aim of our article.
Keywords: Lusatian Culture, Hillfort, Fortification, Terrain Prospection, Airbone Laser Scanning, Non-Destructive Archaeology;
Höhensiedlungen der Spätbronze- und älteren EiseNzeit an der Saale bei Jena und in Mitteldeutschland (The Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age hilltop settlements near the river Salle/Jena and in Central Germany)
A lot of hilltop settlements were founded in the Late Bronze Age in Central Germany (Thuringia, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt). The building of castles in different quantity and quality continues in the Late Hallstatt- and Early La Tène cultures. There are about 150 hilltop settlements which mainly were founded near the rivers like Elbe, Saale etc. To these river-oriented castles belong the three hilltop settlements by the Saale near Jena: Jenzig, Johannisberg and Alter Gleisberg, which tell their own little history of castle building. In the last years, research excavations of the University of Jena were undertaken at the hilltop settlement Alter Gleisberg, to make ascertained statements about chronology, construction of fortification and interior structure. Now we have new knowledge of settlement and function especially for the northern part of the hilltop of Alter Gleisberg. Therefore the hilltop Alter Gleisberg was a central place of prime range with different central functions as protection, representation of authority, control of trade and traffic, craftsmanship and industries especially metalworking industries. On the Jenzig site, several hoards indicate a sacral function.
Keywords: Hilltop Settlement, Castles, Late Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, Central Germany;
K otázke plastickej výzdoby na amforách karpatských mohylových kultúr (The question of plastic decoration on the amphora-form ceramic vessels of the Carpathian Tumulus Grave Cultures)
The paper deals with the question of the occurrence of significant plastic decoration in the form of so-called crow’s foot, on the amphora-shaped ceramic vessels associated with the Carpathian Tumulus Grave cultural complex. This type of decoration can be quite reliably identified within ceramic material from the early phase of the Middle Bronze Age, where various elements of the previous highly-developed culture pottery styles are significantly fading-away. Some researchers associated this peculiar decorative phenomenon exclusively with the Tumulus Grave Culture, but sufficient attention has not yet been given to the detailed analysis, which would confirm these views. The primary objective of the study is to analyse archaeological contexts in which the mentioned plastic ornament occurs and to specify acquaintances with the internal development of the ceramic inventory of the Carpathian Tumulus Grave cultural complex. Earlier reviews of culturally specific nature of this phenomenon are verified from the view of the current state of research. Some observations related to other variations of plastic decorative applications appearing on the amphora-shaped vessels of the Tumulus Grave Culture provenance are outlined in the last section of this paper. The results are confronted with the hypothesis of the gradual spread of cultural elements of the forming Tumulus Grave Culture from the Middle Danube area to the eastern parts of the Carpathian Basin (nowadays central Hungary and the Tisza region) during the early period of the Middle Bronze Age.
Keywords: Middle Bronze Age, Carpathian Basin, Tumulus Grave Culture, Ceramic Vessels, Plastic Ornament;
Skythische Spiralringe oder Piercings aus West-Transdanubien und ihre Symbolik (Scythian spiral jewellery or piercings from West-Transdanubia and their symbolic meaning)
From the beginning of the 20th century, the spiral rings discussed in this study have been called by different names, e.g. lock rings, hair-rings, spiral hair-rings, hair-rings with nail ending, snake-shaped ring, spiral pendant, snake-shaped pendant, earrings, and ear- and nose rings. Examples of this jewellery group have a diameter of less than 30 mm. In the first part of the study, all of the spiral rings of two Transdanubian counties are discussed. Finds are known from Bucsu, Sé and St. Vitus by Velem in Vas county, and from Sopron- Krautacker and Ménfőcsanak in Győr-Moson-Sopron county. All finds come from settlements except the finds from Sopron, which occur in both settlements and cemeteries. The second part of the study analyses types, use and function of the jewellery and their presumed meaning.
Keywords: Spiral ornaments, Piercing, Scythians, Symbolism, Western Transdanubia;
„Skýtská“ militaria z Kotouče u Štramberka a jeho nejbližšího okolí (“Scythian” militaria from Kotouč u Štramberka and its nearest surroundings)
On the basis of examination of literature and archive sources, the author has attempted to make a general inventory of “Scythian” militaria which have been registered from Kotouč u Štramberka and its nearest surroundings so far. He came to the following result: there were 15 bronze arrowheads, 13 of them were threeedged and 2 were double-edged, a four-sided bone point with a socket, a bronze pendant (“vorvarka” in Russian literature); a unique notice does not exclude fragments of other two bone arrowheads without sockets. From this collection, only four three-edged bronze arrowheads, one double-edged arrowhead and a “vorvarka” can be currently found. Nevertheless, representations of almost all now missing finds have been preserved in literature or archive reports. According to them, the “Scythian” finds can be divided into two chronological horizons. Most of them can be dated in the interval between the end of the 7th century and the first half of the 6th century BC, i. e. stage HD 1, or HC2 – HD1 (three-edged bronze rrowheads with projecting sockets, double-edged bronze arrowheads, a bone point and probably also “vorvarka”); their occurrence can be connected with the successful “Scythian” attack on the Hallstatt hillfort in Kotouč. One three-edged bronze arrowhead (with a hidden socket), however, is younger (HD2 – 3; Chotín type) and indicates existence of a later, Late Hallstatt, settlement horizon. This assumption is supported also by some other metal finds (especially circular bronze jewel) from the hillfort, although it has not been proved in the pottery from Kotouč and its nearest surroundings.
Keywords: Scythian Militaria, Kotouč U Štramberka, Revision, Two Settlement Horizons Of Hallstatt Age;
Guláš či stehienko? Zvieracie kostrové zvyšky z halštatských mohýl v Dunajskej Lužnej-Nových Košariskách ako doklad mäsitej stravy? (Stew or thigh? Animal skeletal remains from the Early Iron Age barrows in Dunajská Lužná-Nové Košariská as an evidence of meat dishes?)
Paper is focused on osteological animal remains from Early Iron Age barrows in Dunajská Lužná-Nové Košariská, SW Slovakia. Since the archaeozoological material from these graves was quite well recorded and analysed in detail only a few years after the excavations, it represents a good subject of the research of animal grave offerings and the Early Iron Age burial rites. Based on their character and placement in the graves, the possibilities of their interpretation as the remains of several meat dishes are investigated.
Keywords: Early Iron Age, North-East Alpine Region, Barrows, Animals, Dishes;
New data on the burial customs in the Early Iron Age on the basis of examples from Northeast-Transdanubia (Nové dáta o spôsoboch pochovávania v staršej dobe železnej na príkladoch zo severovýchodného Zadunajska)
The paper focused on the Early Iron Age cemeteries from Northeast-Transdanubia. Some research results have already been published, especially concerning the burial mound and flat cemetery of Süttő and the flat cemeteries of Tatabánya-Dózsakert and Tatabánya-Alsó Vasútállomás. I observed some typical features of the burial customs in these sites and also compared the results with those from the narrower area of Transdanubia and with some cemeteries of the East-Hallstatt cultural unit. The main aim – besides publishing the data – was to highlight the similarities between the burial customs of the two main types of the Early Iron Age burials, the tumuli and the flat cemeteries and also to call the attention to the differences between the elements of the rite.
Keywords: Hallstatt-Period, Burial Custom, Pyre, Ceramic Grave Goods, Plant And Animal Remains;
RAJTÁR, Ján – KOLNÍKOVÁ, Eva – KUZMOVÁ, Klára
K osídleniu Chotína v dobe rímskej (The settlement of Chotín in the Roman period)
Aerial prospection and systematic field surveys have documented an exceptionally intensive and extensive settlement in Chotín during the Roman Period. Its beginnings go back to the second half of the 1st century, when it was settled by the Germanic tribes. It continued to grow in the 2nd century, flourished in the 3rd and 4th centuries and survived until the Migration Period in the early 5th century. Farmstead structure of settlements with trench fencing around residential and farm structures has been detected in some parts of the area. Traces of a Roman temporary camp of approximately 1 hectare dating to the Marcomannic wars have also been found there. The short distance of the settlements from the Roman borders on the Danube had a huge impact on the immediate contacts between the local population and the adjacent part of the Roman province of Pannonia. Here, in the foreground of Brigetio, an important market settlement was probably founded as early as in the 2nd century. It may have been this settlement that Claudius Ptolemy refers to as Kelemantia. The existence of the settlement is attested by a number of imported Roman goods. With 649 fragments of terra sigillata and 747 Roman coins, the settlement outnumbers all sites in the Central European Barbaricum, and documents the extremely intensive trade exchange with the neighbouring Roman territory. The Germanic settlements in Chotín are likely to have played a key role also in the distribution of Roman imports along the eastern branch of the Amber Road, which led further north to the nearer and farther regions.
Keywords: Roman Period, Settlement, Fibulae, Coins, Terra Sigillata;
Deponovanie (?) spôn a kruhového šperku v nádobách vo výbave keltských hrobov na území Karpatskej kotliny (Deposition (?) of fibulae and rings inside vessels in equipment of Celtic graves in the territory of the Carpathian basin)
Vessels as part of funerary equipment are traditionally seen as dining and drinking service. It is assumed that they originally contained food and liquids used either du-ring the journey of the deceased to the eternity or during one’s life. In some cases, another function can be considered as well. In this regard, this contribution discusses the evidence of the La Tène burial pottery with unusual content. These are the findings of fibulae and rings with no traces of burnt human remains, the fact which excludes their function of urns. Considering the finding situation of the La Tène graves in the territory of the Carpathian Basin, the author tries to interpret these unusual contents of the burial pottery.
Keywords: La Tène Period, Fibulae, Rings, Burial Pottery, Deposition;
Príspevok k spôsobu pochovávania na pohrebisku z prelomu doby halštatskej a laténskej v Bučanoch (Contribution to burying method at the burial ground from the turn of Hallstatt and La Tène period in Bučany)
The presented paper deals with the analysis of the burial rite at the burial ground near Bučany, which was used from the late Hallstatt till the Early La Tène period. The main aim is to highlight certain aspects of the burial rite, which appears in inhumation as well as in cremation graves and confront the findings with a similar situation in the Middle Danube area. For these purposes the analysis works with elements such as treatment remains, placing and functional combinations of grave goods, dimensions and space modification of graves. On the burial ground were found 36 graves of which 4 were cremation graves. When evaluating the main findings, the significant appearance of women graves in particular, as opposed to the warriors’ graves should be mentioned. Just in this group we can observe the greatest variability of the funeral ritual. By comparison of burial rite between cremation and inhumation graves some parallels appear in the way how mourners deposited interments in relation to cadavers and form of grave arrangement.
Keywords: Bučany, Burial Ground, Late Hallstatt and Early La Tène Period, Burial Rite Analysis;
TICHÝ, Radomír – AULICKÁ, Monika – KOVÁŘ, Filip – ŠICHANOVÁ, Petra
Keramický odpad na sídlišti HD/LTA v Tuněchodech u Chrudimi, Česká republika (Pottery debris from the HD/LTA site Tuněchody near Chrudim, Czech Republic)
The aim of this article is to compare – on the example of the HD/LTA settlement in Tuněchody near Chrudim – former suggestions how to solve formative processes with new mathematic methods and contextual approaches. If the results of these methods support each other it would strengthen the supposition that positive results of formative process research within settlement sites are possible. To this end a new algorithm of the state of preservation of ceramic fragments was verified on all features of the site. Further presence of so called conglomerates from 25 features from seasons 2003 to 2008, which could be interpreted as sunken buildings or clay extracting pits and 29 features interpreted as storage pits was evaluated. The rest of the features were described as settlement pits or disputed features. The storage pits were mostly dated to the Hallstatt – La Tène period, but there were also six storage pits from the Roman period.
Keywords: Tuněchody, Settlement Features, Hd/Lta, Ceramics, Formation Processes;
VLADÁR, Jozef – WIEDERMANN, Egon
Z pontských stepí na západ – ku karpatským autochtónom (From the Pontic steppes to the west – to the Carpathian autochthones)
The study abstracts from the traditional formal explanation of material culture as a system method commonly used to analyse historical sources. This commonly applied but depersonalized procedure is replaced by a structure with elements of a human’s role as a subject in history – the creator and his community. The investigation focuses mostly on the period of turbulent socio-cultural changes at the turn of the early and late European prehistory. In the territory of the northern inner Carpathians and in the northern Pontic territory, primarily, the depth and extent of mutual contacts between the communities of the Pit Grave (and pre-Pit Grave) Culture people and the northern Carpathian societies (allochthones and autochthones) is searched. With emphasis on the study of contoures of the diffusion, migration, immigration, invasion and acculturation processes, the investigation is aimed to uncover the subject, causes and consequences of trans-territorial population movements.
Keywords: Aeneolithic, Interterritorial Movements, The Northern Carpathian And The Northern Pontic Territory;
Variability of the Vekerzug culture burials in the Middle Danube Region (Variabilita pohrebov vekerzugskej kultúry v strednom Podunajsku)
The paper is focused on the detailed analysis of the funerals of the Vekerzug culture in central Danube. The subject of the analysis is the skeletal and cremation graves from the burials of the Vekerzug culture from the territory of southwest Slovakia and central Hungary. The original database is based on information obtained from archaeological sources, mainly information about burial pits, composition of inventory and how to store individual objects. The main focus is on recognizing the variability of funeral habits in the Chotin-Preseľany nad Ipľom graves and its confrontation with the already existing concept of regional segmentation of Vekerzug culture and the identification of elements of funeral ritual that we can theoretically associate with the influence of foreign communities.
Keywords: Vekerzug Culture, Middle Danube Region, Burials, Inhumation, Cremation;
Prehľadová práca / Review Article / Übersichtsartikel
Stav bádania v problematike sídliskových štúdií lužickej kultúry na Slovensku (State of research on the issue of the settlement studies of the Lusatian Culture in Slovakia)
The Lusatian Urnfield Culture definitely belongs among the best studied cultural complexes of the Bronze Age in Central Europe. This assumption is supported by the fact that it has been almost 130 years since German anthropologist R. Virchow first used the expression Lusatian Culture in literature. In this long scientific era, the conceptual attitude to the character of the settlement structure and unity of the Lusatian cultural complex underwent several changes. These changes, if we present them on a timeline, reflect various theoretical concepts of the previous century – from the antiquarian to the post-processual attitude. In the collection of articles dedicated to prof. Peter Romsauer, I like to present the development of those views with the focus on hillforts which represent the highest hierarchical component of the Lusatian Culture’s settlement structures. With this type of article, I want to pay tribute to the scientific as well as pedagogical work of celebrating prof. Romsauer, who educated dozens of Slovak archaeologists, including the author of this article.
Keywords: Slovakia, Lusatian Culture, Settlement Structure, History Of Research;
Slovenské povodie Ipľa v dobe halštatskej (stav výskumu) (The Slovak territory of the Ipeľ river basin in the Hallstatt Period (State of research))
The article deals with the state of research of the Hallstatt period in the Slovak territory of the Ipeľ river basin. Despite numerous terrain activities which started as early as the 19th century and basically continue until now, our knowledge of the Hallstatt period in the Ipeľ region can be characterized as insufficient and our information on individual sites as scarce. However, we must emphasize the fact that none of the settlements or burial grounds used mostly in stages HC or HD has not been investigated in detail so far. The source base and the extent of its processing suggest certain differences in the cultural development (generally, between the western and eastern parts of the Slovak side of the Ipeľ river) as well as discontinuity of the settlement (between stages HC and HD). While there are connections with the inner Carpathian development (the Eastern Hallstatt Culture in the south-western part of Slovakia and in Transdanubia, surviving Urnfield Cultures in the south of central Slovakia) in the material from HC, finds of the Vekerzug Culture from HD suggest connections with the east and southeast. It will be possible to create a more complex picture of the Hallstatt period in this specific territory mainly on the basis of projects including extensive and interdisciplinary investigations.
Keywords: Slovakia, Ipeľ River Basin, Hallstatt Period, State Of Research;
NEVIZÁNSKY, Gabriel – PROHÁSZKA, Péter
Jozef Ľudovít Holuby und die archäologischen Denkmäler von Zemianske Podhradie/Nemespodhragy aus dem Jahr 1881 (Jozef Ľudovít Holuby a archeologické pamiatky zo Zemianskeho Podhradia z roku 1881)
In the last third of the 19th century in the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, various archeological societies are formed. Activists and fans of archeaology also carried out the first amateur studies – excavations. Their activity was supported, encouraged and directed mainly by Flóris Rómer (1815–1889), a professor of the Pest university and administrator of the archeological collections of the Hungarian National Museum. In this article, we publish a previously unknown correspondence by Jozef Ľudovít Holuby with Rómer. In the submitted documents, we find valuable information about the research results of J. Ľ. Holubyho in Zemianske Podhradie, which he carried out in 1881.
Keywords: Zemianske Podhradie, Excavation, 19th Century, Letter, Correspondence;
VADAY, Andrea – SZAKOS, Éva
Scythian Period Sites in Nógrád County (Lokality zo skýtskeho obdobia v Novohradskej župe)
In the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age a variety of settlements and cemeteries of the surviving population are known in Nógrád county. However, the presence of Scythian invaders meant a numerical minority compared to the autochthonous population. Newcomers with equestrian combat tactics and a range of weapons were ensured in the success of their conquest. For the mostly nomadic Scythians, the mountain regions of the county were not suitable for their lifestyle they got used to in the East. Nevertheless, several other aspects were important to them because it created a connection between today’s southern Slovakia and the Hungarian Plains.
Keywords: Iron-Age, Scythians, Military Occupation, Atypical Inhumation Burials of Children, Nógrád County (Hungary);
BOBEK, Pavol – TOČÍK, Anton (†)
Eneolitické osídlenie Bukovej (Aeneolithic occupation of Buková)
This paper focuses on the evaluation of the Aeneolithic Period finds from Buková obtained during research of the burial mounds cemetery from the Middle Bronze Age. In several mounds ceramic material, semi-finished products and stone tools were found. Under the mound V/59 was examined disturbed feature 1 from Aeneolithic Period, probably a remnant of a dome-shaped hearth which contains many ceramic fragments. In the paper there are also evaluated several solitary findings. Based on their dating it is possible to expect a prehistoric occupation of Buková in the Neolithic Period, as well as in the older and younger Aeneolithic Period.
Keywords: Slovakia, Buková, Aeneolithic Period, Late Baden Culture, Settlement;
Balkánské a řecké kuchyňské nádobí v pistiru a jinde v Thrákii: místo pyraunů v kuchyni a stolování (Balkan and Greek kitchenware in Pistiros and elsewhere in Thrace: pyraunoi in the kitchen and dining)
A short contribution attempts to initiate a further detailed study of the Balkan and Greek kitchenware. The kitchenware presented in the paper includes, among others, pyraunoi, flat discs, lekanai, pithoid containers, and Red Amphoroid Ware.
Keywords: Pottery, Kitchenware, Balkan, Greece, Early Iron Age, Pyraunos;
Železná dýka typu gamów Trácko-Kimerského horizontu zo Slovenska (The Gamów type iron dagger of the Thraco-Cimmerian horizon from Slovakia)
Artefacts connected with the influences from Eastern Europe and the Caucasus occur in the territory of Western Slovakia in the Late Bronze Age (HB2-HB3). This is the horizon of the so-called “Cimmerian bronzes”. They appear in burial complexes, depots as well as in form of individual finds. They are often parts of horse harnesses and most frequently, they are weapons – bimetallic daggers with openwork hilts of the Gamów type. At present, three knives of this type in three different variants are known in Slovakia. First is made of bronze, second of iron and the last is yet unpublished bimetallic dagger with a bronze handle and an iron blade.
Keywords: West Slovakia, Late Bronze Age, Thraco-Cimmerian Horizon, The Gamów Type Iron Dagger;
Predbežné výsledky výskumu halštatskej osady v Bernolákove (Preliminary results of the Hallstatt Age settlement excavation in Bernolákovo)
In 2015, archaeologists of the Archaeological Institute of SAS in Nitra excavated part of the Hallstatt Age settlement – 36 features – in the cadastral area of Bernolákovo. It was situated in the well known site Obora, where, while building D1 highway, 143 features of this period were excavated in years 1972–1973. Most important features were buildings with residential or storage function. Some of them had different constructional frames. Most common find was pottery, also numerous were spindles and in some of the residential features, weights were found too. Less common were items made of bone or antler. Iron items nearly absented. Since ceramic material is now in stage of processing, only preliminary dating to the phase Ha C can be suggested.
Keywords: Kalenderberg Culture, Settlement, Housing Features, A Moon Shaped Idol;
CHMELO, Ladislav – ŠEBESTA, Bohuslav – ŠÚTOR, Marek – ŽÁK MATYASOWSZKY, František
Eneolitické obytné objekty z Dolných Naštíc (Aeneolithic housing features from Dolné Naštice)
In 2014, during the rescue archaeological excavation in the cadastral area of Dolné Naštice, two houses dated to the early Aeneolithic Lengyel Culture stage IV (Ludanice group) were found. In our contribution both houses were analysed in term of typology, finds inventory and analytical possibilities of daub.
Keywords: Dolné Naštice, Aeneolithic, Lengyel Culture, House, Pottery;
A remarkable early iron age grave from Szólád-Kertek mögött (Pozoruhodný hrob zo staršej doby železnej zo Szólád-Kertek mögött)
The importance of Grave 9 from Szólád-Kertek mögött lies in the recovery of a fibula, connected to the Southeastern-Alpine region, found together with an iron weapon of Vekerzug origin, in a feature that can be dated to the second half/end of the 6th century BC in Southern Transdanubia.
Keywords: Szólád – Kertek Mögött, Southern Transdanubia, Early Iron Age, Late Hallstatt, Cemetery;
Výšinné sídlisko gávskej kultúry v Sedliskách-Podčičve (Upland settlement of the Gáva Culture in Sedliská-Podčičva)
The contribution presents an upland settlement of the Čičva Castle hill in the cadastre of the village Sedliská (district Vranov nad Topľou). It deals with a minor excavation in the north-west part of the hill, north-west from the castle area (position 6). There were traces of 4 structures, a double-pole line and a rampart,which was slightly researched through sections in 1994–1995. No settlement structure was uncovered as a unit. Results of the excavation have proved the settlement existed in its economic accustomed manner. Chronological categorization is not unambiguous. It is dated, from the preliminary analyses, to the end of the younger and the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. In the framework of the Gáva Culture in Eastern Slovakia we can speak about its second stage (Ha A-Ha B).
Keywords: Upland Settlement, Gáva Culture, Late Bronze Age (Stages Ha A-Ha B);
KOZUBOVÁ, Anita – BIELICH, Mário – BISTÁKOVÁ, Alena – MILOVÁ, Beáta
Sídlisko vekerzugskej kultúry v Lužiankach pri Nitre (Vekerzug Culture settlement in Lužianky near Nitra)
The primary goal of this article is to present the results of the minor development-led excavation taking place at the building site of a water connection pipe in Nitra, borough of Lužianky, location ‘Pri vinárskych závodoch’. Three features of the Vekerzug Culture were excavated here in February 2005. Taking into consideration their smaller size and irregular oval shape, the utilization of these features has not been definitely specified. Feature No. 2 was of commercial nature, whereas it is not possible to determine precisely whether the features No. 1 and No. 3 were dwellings or not. The feature No. 3 was filled with a large amount of burnt clay daub. In the fill of the features occurred only limited number of pottery (with utility hand-thrown ceramics prevailing over a very small number of wheel-turned vessels), animal bones and small artefacts, mainly ceramic whorls. Based on the analysis of ceramic material from the feature No. 3 we could place the settlement features from Lužianky at the beginning of the phase Ha D2.
Keywords: Lužianky, Early Iron Age, Settlement Features, Vekerzug Culture, Pottery, Small Artefacts;
Decorated Central Gaulish Terra Sigillata from Chotín (Reliéfne zdobená stredogalská terra sigillata z Chotína)
Chotín (situated in Komárno district) is a well-known archaeological site in southwestern Slovakia, which was settled intensively as early as in prehistoric times. This is attested by rich collections of archaeological finds from several excavations including unique items from various periods. One of the significant sites in the cadaster of this village has been excavated by Peter Romsauer, when he unearthed a polycultural settlement on the southwestern edge of Chotín in the course of three excavation seasons (1977–1979).
Keywords: Terra Sigillata, Central Gaul, Lezoux, Barbaricum, Chotín, Antonine Period;
Výskum v lokalite Ľubietová-Vysoká (Verifying excavation on the site Ľubietová-Vysoká)
The article informs about the results of a verifying excavation of a new site Vysoká, in cadastre of the village Ľubietová. The village lies in the area of occurrence of polymetallic and ferrous ores in north-western direction from the stratovolcano Poľana. The settlement of the village area dates back to the Aeneolithic. A hoard of bronze objects from the Late Bronze Age is known from here. In the Middle Ages Ľubietová belonged to seven Central Slovak royal mining towns. In the village we can find the remains of an anti-Turkish fort from the 2nd half of the 16th century. In 2014 the survey of the site Vysoká has started. The excavation was a combination of trenches and metal detector survey. The survey gave us a large collection of prehistoric pottery and metal objects. In this article the artefacts found by amateur treasure hunters are presented as well. Based on the finds, we can date the site into the phases from Ha A to LT D. The aim of further research is to identify the locations of prehistoric copper and iron mines.
Keywords: Ľubietová, Late Bronze Age, Lusatian Culture, Early Iron Age, Late Iron Age, Pottery;
PATAY, Róbert – SCHOLTZ, Róbert G. – SCARD, Alexandra
Scythian Age quiver mount from the outskirts of Gyömrő (Hungary) (Kovanie tulca zo skýtskeho obdobia z okolia Gyömrő (Maďarsko))
This paper deals with an interesting Scythian Age bronze find from Gyömrő that was donated to the Kossuth Museum, Cegléd in 2012, by a young man1. The city of Gyömrő is located in Pest County in the vicinity of Budapest, on the border of the Pesti hordalékkúpsíkság and Gödöllői-dombság. The investigated site occupied several hectares on the south-western slope of an early glacial alluvium: the so-called ‘Maglódi-hát’, a flood-free high bank of a former meander of the Halas stream. The swampy, marshy floodplain enclosed the site on the elevated river bank from three sides. On the basis of the 2nd Military Survey, the area was a waterlogged meadow and grassland, the elevation ranges between 132.5 m and 135 m above the Baltic Sea level. Due to excavations led during past decades, Gyömrő have become known in Hungarian Scythian research. Early Iron Age settlement and cemetery fragments were brought to light in the vicinity of the discussed site.
Keywords: Scythian Age, Bronze Quiver Mount, Weapons, Stray Find;
ŠIMUNKOVÁ, Katarína – VANGĽOVÁ, Terézia
Sídliskový objekt maďarovskej kultúry z Veľkej Mane (Settlement feature of the Maďarovce Culture from Veľká Maňa)
During the research of the Church of Our Lady of Sorrows in Veľká Maňa in November 2015 a disturbed settlement feature No. 1/15 was unearthed in trench No. 2. In the feature there were found pottery fragments of the Maďarovce Culture and some concentration of animal bones. Our contribution deals with the analysis of discovered finds and their integration into the wider framework of the Maďarovce Culture distribution in the Žitava river valley.
Keywords: Southwest Slovakia, Settlement, Early Bronze Age, Maďarovce Culture, Archaeozoology;
Depot náramkov z Nitrianskych Sučian, okr. Prievidza (A hoard of bracelets from Nitrianske Sučany, Prievidza district)
The find complexcomes from a mountainous environment of Central Slovakia settled by the bearers of the Lusatian Culture. It comprised four decorated bar bracelets which were bound together with a bronze wire in two spots and according to the preserved remains, they were originally wrapped in a small leather bag. The finds belong to a unique type of bracelets with circular shape and cross-section. The finds from Slovakia, especially with the emphasis on the variable decoration, can be divided into six variants. Bracelets of first two variants are represented in the analyzed hoard and they also belong to the most frequent variants in the central European environment. As a whole, the analyzed type of bracelets is one of the chronologically less sensitive types, with the main period of occurrence from stage Ópalyi to the end of the later stage of the Urnfield Cultures (BC2/BD1-HA1). From the aspect of geographical distribution, the concentration of finds in the upper Tisza region is significant; it also includes finds from southeastern Slovakia. Another group of finds from the Lusatian Culture territory in Central and Northern Slovakia is considered a result of intense contacts with the territory of older southeastern Urnfield Cultures and the local hoards do not only suggest possible routes of commuication, they can be seen as votive artifacts related to cultic places and rituals.
Keywords: Slovakia, Late Bronze Age, Rod Bracelet;
Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal / Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia – pp. 507–510
Pokyny pre autorov/ Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren – pp. 511–514