Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien
Pečeť jako obraz individua. Několik příkladů z prostředí představených moravských klášterů v raném novověku (Seal as The Mirror Of an Individual. Few Examples of Moravian Monasteries in The Early Modern Age)
The paper focuses on the communicating capacity of seals of superiors of Moravian monasteries at the end of middle ages and in the early modern age. It pays attention to the intention of the seal owners, but also to the existing seal matrices and to the impressions made by them. In the process of making seal stands at the beginning an idea of the seal owner to get a seal matrix. Paper follows different motives, which finally led to the creating of matrix and its usage. Almost every seal contains more levels of information. Information is connected and operates together, but not all of them are generally understandable and not all of them have constant validity. Next to the identifying function, which is closely connected to the credibility, legal force and validity, it is necessary to understand the seal as a mean of representation as well. Last but not least we can see the seal as a mirror to the contemporary historical context, which reflects the place of its origin and the position of its owner in the contemporary social structures.
Keywords: Seal; Premonstratensians; Carthusians; Early Modern Age; Interpretation;
Zdroje vplyvu agrárnej strany na Slovensku v medzivojnovom období (The Sources of Influence of The Agrarian Party in Slovakia During The Inter-War Period)
The article deals with the sources of influence of the Agrarian Party in Slovakia during the inter-war period. Since 1922, the Agrarian Party in Slovakia was an integral part of the state-wide Czechoslovak agrarian movement. Despite the fact that it had never won the highest number of votes in Slovakia and always finished as the second most supported party, thanks to the centralist political system it was also the most influential party in Slovakia. The article examines four basic political activities of the party which made it much more successful than the other centralist parties in Slovakia. Those included organizational structure, affiliated organizations, the land reform and its utilization as a propagandist tool as well as numerous and successful intervention on behalf of its membership.
Keywords: 1st Czechoslovak Republic; Political Parties; Agrarian Party In Slovakia; Land Reform; Schools;
Zdravotnícke školstvo na Slovensku v medzivojnovom období (The Health School System during in the Interwar Period in Slovakia)
The health school system during the interwar period in Slovakia provided pregradual preparation and postgraduate education for doctors, nurses and midwives. The education of the other categories of the healthcare professionals was conducted mainly in the form of short courses. In the proposed study, we have been focused to the professional preparation of two categories of the healthcare professionals: education of nurses and midwives. We describe that time legislation that determined the conditions for establishment of the educational institutions for nurses and midwives, the methodology of teaching and the methods of graduation of study. Attention is paid as well to the analysis of factors that necessitated the establishment of the postgraduate education for the midwives in the follow-up courses. The conclusion points to the benefits of the professionalization of nurses and midwives for improvement of health care for various groups of population.
Keywords: History; Health School System; Nurses; Midwives; Education; Slovakia;
Vidiecke Ladislav Novomeský v čele Slovenské akademie věd a umění (1950–1951) (Ladislav Novomeský as the Head of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts (1950–1951))
In spring 1950 poet Ladislav Novomeský was accused of the so-called Slovak bourgeois nationalism. After his forced self-criticism, Novomeský was removed from his position of Minister of Education and had to leave the top politics. The leaders of the Communist Party of Slovakia appointed him as the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts’ president. Ladislav Novomeský performed this role during the months before his arrest in February 1951. In this essay, we analyse the poet’s inconsistent activities during this period. As president, Novomeský’s effort was to turn the Academy into top scientific institution in Slovakia, but he was also anxious to keep it in line with the political and ideological course of the Communist Party. The poet’s schizophrenic attitude during the management of Academy can be illustrated by various examples, e.g. changes in organizational structure, introduction of censorship, collaboration with the Slovak Matica, publishing of the edition of Hviezdoslav’s Library, his own work, and so on.
Keywords: Ladislav Novomeský; Slovakia; Science; Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts; Communist Party of Slovakia; Stalinism; Slovak Bourgeois Nationalism;
Divadelníctvo v Nitre v rokoch 1939 – 1945 (Stage-craft in Nitra between The Years 1939-1945)
The totalitarian regime established in Slovakia after October 1938 affected not only the political and economic life, but it was fully manifested in the cultural sphere and ways of spending leisure time as well. Residents of Nitra could feel "the cold breath of totalitarianism" on their own skin in the form of restrictions and regulations issued by the governing party through local loyal representatives during the Second World War. Regulations issued during the Second World War by Hlinka' Slovak People's Party influenced stagecraft as well as other elements of leisure time activities. After the Vienna Arbitration, Slovakia lost the city of Košice with the second most stable theatrical scene. There was a theater company only in Bratislava along with several touring and amateur theaters. Their number had been significantly reduced. The government power was not interested in Czech artists, who had to leave the country. It supported mainly Slovak dramatic works, however, there were only a few authors, who were able to write a good drama. Therefore, the government power tried to compensate this deficit by holding competitions for the best drama, but this effort did not have any great response among authors. Many dramatic pieces contained ideological elements. The works of some authors were even misused for propaganda purposes. A new theater ensemble led by Fraňo Devinský was established in Nitra at this time. The ensemble gradually spread and even persons who were suspicious of the regime started to act here. However, operation of theater was financially demanding and if Devinský wanted to maintain its operation with the help of state grants, he had to adjust the program to the requirements of state representatives. Therefore, this theater also performed dramatic plays that had national character and emphasized imaginary milestones in Slovakia's past. On the contrary, the state and critics were not in favor of operettas, which were very popular and attended by large crowds, who enjoyed their simple story and well-known songs. The amateur theatrical scene in Nitra almost completely ceased to exist. Amateur actors did not want to perform the theatrical plays required by the state and after the harsh criticism of one of its satiric plays, the amateur theatrical company completely ceased operation.
Keywords: Slovak Folk Theatre; Stage-Craft; Nitra; Totality;
Idea čechoslovakismu versus dotváření svébytného slovenského politického národa v první Československé republice (The Idea of the Czechoslovakism Versus the Extension of the Sovereign Political Nation in the First Czechoslovak Republic)
Czechoslovakism is a theory claiming that Czechs and Slovaks form a single nation using two languages or two literary versions of the same language. Czechoslovakism is based on natural cultural and language affinity of Czechs and Slovaks and has roots in early romantic national movements. The theory was essential for the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918. During the inter-war period Czechoslovakism was supported by official representatives and became part of the state ideology. In Slovakia, however, the idea was strongly criticized and rejected by most of the population and especially by the autonomist movement. After 1945 the idea was abandoned.
Keywords: Czechoslovakism; The First Czecholovak Republic; Political Nation;
Gramotnosť v kruhu palatínskej rodiny Drugeth (Literacy on the Court of the Palatine Family Drugeth)
This study focuses on question of literacy on the court of the aristocratic Drugeth family. Originated in the Kingdom of Naples, Drugeths were collaborators and adherents of Hungarian king Charles Robert of Anjou. For a longer period of time they were palatines of Hungarian kingdom (1323-1341) and one of the most powerful aristocratic families of the era – they were foremen of the new Angevin nobility. The paper focuses not only on the question of literacy within the framework of the chancellery and public service of the Drugeth family, but as well on the literacy, that was a part of the culture and ereryday life or this family. The author particularly resolves whether the palatine William Drugeth was literate and whether he researched in the Scepus law.
Keywords: Literacy; Aristocratic Drugeth Family; New Anjou Aristocracy; Kingdom Of Hungary; 14th Century;
Živý/mŕtvy Alexej Dmitrijevič Ponomarjov (Dead – alive Alexei Dmitrievich Ponomaryov)
A. D. Ponomaryov, member of 40th cavalry guards regiment (10th guards cavalry division) volunteered for a reconaissance mission on 28th March 1945 on the outskirts of village Úľany nad Žitavou in southwestern Slovakia. He failed to complete his task since German defenders of the 357th infantry division captured him. They had probably tried to interrogate him, but after a short time they poured petrol on him and burnt him. On the next day, when Soviet division occupied the village, Cossacks found his body presuming he was dead. But soon after that, when burial platoon started to collect bodies, they had found out, he was still alive. Ponomaryov thus got to the hospital and in spite of his burns, he survived. His regimental commander, not knowing about that, made a proposal to award Ponomaryov a Hero of the Soviet union in memoriam, which was accepted and executed on 15th May 1946! Even the supreme commander of cavalry-mechanized group, general Pliev, did know nothing about Ponomaryov’s survival and wrote about his presumed deathe in his memoirs in 1971.
Keywords: World War Ii; Hero Of The Soviet Union; Alexei Dmitrievich Ponomaryov; 10th Guards Cavalry Division; Liberation Of Slovakia, War Atrocities;
Prezentácia zaniknutej stredovekej dediny Baratka (Presentation of the Defunct Medieval Village Baratka)
Baratka extinct medieval village near Levice exceeds its scientific potential significance Levice district boundaries. Three archaeological research stage in the years 1958-1960 yielded remarkable results and brought new insights into the problems of rural churches and medieval villages like housing estate units. Despite the excellence of the site it remains in the minds of the general public unknown. The intention of this paper is to propose appropriate forms of presentation of immovable monuments. The proposed were certain methods of presentation in fondo in Tekovské museum in Levice and in the area of the city. Presentation outdoors city also has its practical outcome.
Keywords: Baratka; Levice; Heritage Preservation; Presentation; Information Board;
DOUMERC, Bernard. Benátky a jejich impérium ve Středomoří 9. – 15. století. (Ľudovít Marci), pp. 474–478
KAČÍREK, Ľuboš. Národný život Slovákov v Peštbudíne v rokoch 1850 – 1875. (Lukáš Trnkóci), pp. 478–481
HRABOVEC, Emília (ed.). Jozef Tiso – kňaz a prezident. (Viktória Rigová), pp. 481–486
Kronika/Chronicle/Chronik – pp. 487–500
Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal / Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia – pp. 501–505
Pokyny pre autorov/ Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren – pp. 506–509