Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien
Germáni pri Clastidiu (222 pred n. l.) a v Spartakovom povstaní (73 – 71 pred n. l.) (The Germans at Clastidium (222 BC) and in the War of Spartacus (73 – 71 BC))
Traditionally, the passages of Posidonius or Caesar are considered to be the first mention of the Germans in the ancient literature. But, besides these well-known texts, there are still a few references that have been judged in the past, at least by some authors, that they might be authentic and precede Caesar's expedition to Gaul and his testimony about the Germans. The study discusses two of these references, the first is a known inscription from Fasti triumphales dated to 222 BC and the other is a tradition that preserves the Germans in the Spartacus' army. The article not only sums up the current positions to the two, but also brings a few observations of its own.
Keywords: Germans; Classical literature; Clastidium; Spartacus; Caesar;
Filozofická redefinícia pojmov štát, občan a vyhnanec v Cicerónovom spise Paradoxa Stoicorum (The Philosophical Redefinition of Terms State, Citizen and Exile in the Cicero’s Stoic Paradoxes)
The article deals with the analysis of Cicero’s redefinition of three political terms – state, citizen, exile – in the ‘Paradoxon IV’ (Cic. Parad. 27–32). Cicero in these chapters attacks against Publius Clodius Pulcher and dwells on the theme of his own exile. By stoic philosophical practices is here Clodius depicted as an enemy, non-citizen and Cicero as a stoic sage and ideal citizen. The study shows that philosophical elements are applicable to the political and rhetorical discourses and can be combined.
Keywords: Marcus Tullius Cicero; Stoic Paradoxes; Publius Clodius Pulcher; Stoicism; Stoic Sage; Exile; Citizen;
Potraviny jako předmět zájmu lapků a zemských škůdců a jejich odraz v soudních záznamech v Čechách a na Moravě ve 14. – 15. století (Foodstuffs as Object of Interest to Robbers and Outlaws and the Reflection in Judicial Records in Bohemia and Moravia in the 14th and 15th Century)
The main object of the study is the rather neglected fact, that the object of interest to the robbers were not just money, expensive stuff or kidnapping people, but also food in different forms. The author analyzes three main sources of a mass nature originating in the Czech lands, Libri citationum et sententiarum (in Czech Knihy půhonné a nálezové) for the second half of the 14th century and the 15th century, Execusion and Outlaw Records of Jihlava (in Czech Popravčí a psanecké zápisy jihlavské) and Execusion Book of Lords of Rožmberk (in Czech Popravčí kniha pánů z Rožmberka). The author shows in this study using the analysis of the sources, what kind of food was the most frequent object of interest to the robbers and outlaws.
Keywords: Foodstuffs; Robbers, Outlaws; 14th Century; 15th Century; Bohemia; Moravia;
Město Řím a jeho památky očima dvou českých pozdně renesančních šlechticů (The City of Rome and Its Monuments Through the Eyes of Two Late Renaissance Czech Noblemen)
The paper analyzes and compares the methods and accuracy of the descriptions of ancient Roman monuments in two important Old Bohemian travelogues from the beginning of the 17th century: the Pilgrimage of Christopher Harant of Polzice and Bezdruzice (1564 – 1621; travelogue printed in 1608) and the travelogue of Friedrich of Donin (ca. 1574 – 1634; travelogue preserved in a single manuscript). Both travelogues are richly illustrated; they describe both specific monuments of the city of Rome at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries as well as the types of monuments not all of which are of Roman origin, but can also be found in Rome (such as obelisks and pyramids). In his account, Donin prefers to provide general information about the monuments rather than to describe his own journey. However, due to the missing page, we do not know the exact beginning of his description. The descriptions are chronological: first, he depicts the monuments of pagan Rome; second, Christian churches and basilicas; and, finally, the secular buildings of Christian Rome. The preserved part of the account of Roman pagan monuments starts topographically with the Vespasianic Templum Pacis and the Palatine hill; nevertheless, while speaking of imperial arches, Donin abandons the method and describes instead the most important monuments according to their type. The arches are followed by the Flavian amphitheatre, the Theatre of Marcellus, Roman baths, the Pyramid of Cestius, the obelisks of Rome, the columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius (incorrectly identified with the column of Antoninus Pius), and the mausoleum of Hadrian. Donin is well versed in architecture, his concise descriptions of monuments are mostly accurate (although not always). Contrary to Harant who labels most building stones as “marble”, Donin distinguishes between different kinds of building stones (marble, travertine, porphyry). The lack of autopsy in Harant’s descriptions is sometimes obvious, not only in verbal descriptions (the curious information that Titus’ triumphal carriage in the relief of Titus’ arch is drawn by two unicorns), but also in illustrations (the Egyptian pyramids resembling obelisks). On the other hand, Harant’s travelogue is much more extensive and elaborate, whereas the greatest difference between him and Donin when it comes to the information processing method is Harant’s ubiquitous bibliographical citations and the lack of these in Donin’s work (except in case of literal quotes from Latin or Italian poets).
Keywords: Friedrich of Donin; Christopher Harant of Polzice and Bezdruzice; Old Bohemian Travelogue; Rome; Topography of Ancient Rome;
HRUBOŇ, Anton – MIČKO, Peter
Slovenskí evanjelici a. v. na Dolnej zemi v rokoch 1938 – 1945. (K vzťahu kultúrneho zázemia a politiky v čase druhej svetovej vojny) (Slovak Lutherans in the „Lower Land“, 1938 – 1945 (To the Relation Between Cultural Environment and Politics in the Times of the World War II))
During the World War II Slovak communities in the „Lower Land“ (Dolná zem/Alföld) gained experiences with new states and political regimes. Due to aggression of Hungarian Kingdom which, as a German ally, annexed parts of Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia in 1938 – 1941, a large part of Lower Land Slovaks temporarily became Hungarian citizens. Other groups of ethnic Slovaks lived in Romania, Ustasha Croatia, occupied territories of Serbia and Bulgaria during the wartime period. Conditions for national and religious life of these communities differed depending on national policy of their new motherlands and local specifics in which they coexisted with other nations and nationalities of this multicultural region. Despite a resolute stance of Slovak Lutherans in Slovakia towards the ruling Hlinka´s Slovak People´s Party´s catholic-profiled regime, Lutherans who were a majority among the Lower Land Slovaks did not always share moods of their fellow believers from historical homeland of their ancestors. Lutheran Slovaks in Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania and Bulgaria had not maintained a close contact with the Slovak Republic and its regime. Because of this factor, Hlinka´s Slovak People´s Party´s regime could not directly influence the Lower Land Slovaks and exert political or ideological pressure on them. Presented study analyzes to what extent did the unenviable position of Slovak Lutherans in Slovakia mirror in the life of the Lower Land Slovaks, in their perception of Hlinka´s Slovak People´s Party and in their attitudes to the Slovak statehood. Taking the local national, cultural and religious specifics of the Lower Land into consideration, it also debates the question why the Lower Land Slovak communities, in general, did not show a passionate pro-regime activism and joy over the independent Slovak State, why they held a neutral, negative or not clearly profiled stance to the political issues regarding the “New Europe” instead and why the traditional cultural aspects like Lutheran faith played a bigger role within their identity than a wartime nationalism.
Keywords: Foreign Slovaks; Lower Land; Lutherans; Slovak State; World War II;
Florián Tománek v Strane slobody (1946 – 1947) (Florián Tománek in the Liberty Party (1946 - 1947))
The Catholic priest and deputy Florián Tománek (1877 – 1948) can be regarded as one of the figureheads that, after World War II, spearheaded Political Catholicism. He is an example mirroring the political life in Slovakia at his lifetime. His political dedication for the Liberty Party (Strana slobody) can be considered as one the interesting moments of his personal life, but serves also as an example for the zeitgeist after World War II that had been shaped by a reshuffling of the political forces in the renewed Czecho-Slovakia. The intention of this paper is to explore relevant sources to reconstruct his part in the set-up of the post-World War Political Catholicism and to highlight his contributions for and his role in the Liberty Party (Strana slobody).
Keywords: Florián Tománek; Liberty Party; (Strana slobody) Elections; 1946;
Spory a konflikty medzi slovenskými spisovateľmi v rokoch 1945 – 1948 (Disputes and Conflicts Among Slovak Writers Between the Years 1945 – 1948)
The study focuses on the Slovak literary life between the years 1945 - 1948, especially on the relations and conflicts among Slovak writers and intellectuals in the short period before the communist coup. In the paper are analysed public reactions to the cleansing of Slovak cultural life in the contemporary cultural journals, whereas the author pays attention mainly on the communist writers. Although these intellectuals were members of the Communist party, many of them had different opinions on how to deal with the problem of cleansing after the second world war. The study wants to emphasize variability of opinions among the communist´s writers and the attention of the study is turned to the interior of the writer´s community, who has been traditionally quarrelled since the first Czechoslovak republic and divided by personal conflicts.
Keywords: Union of Slovak Writers; The Cleansing of Cultural Life; Cultural Journals; Nationalism; Czechoslovakism; Slovak Communist Intellectuals; Communist Party of Slovakia; Ladislav Novomeský;
HRONČEK, Pavel ‒ CHRASTINA, Peter
Poznámky ku konceptualizácii v environmentálnych dejinách na Slovensku (Notes on Conceptualisation of Enviromental History in Slovakia)
The study represents a probe into the issue of conceptualisation of environmental history in Slovakia based on a research of Slovak and foreign literature. Chronological aspect emphasizes the period of the end of the Middle Ages and the Modern Period. An overview of the process of formation and development of the environmental history is complemented with the characteristics of the discipline from the most significant representatives in the field. The study also deals with the meta-theoretical and theoretical-methodological aspects of the study of the relations between man and the environment in the past.
Keywords: History; Environmental History; Conceptualization; Slovakia;
NOVÁKOVÁ, Lucia – HRNČIARIK, Erik – DAŇOVÁ, Miroslava
Equestrian Statues in Antiquity: City, People, Monuments (Equestrian Statues in Antiquity: City, People, Monuments)
Greek city-states formed a comprehensive social system with regard to the political and socio-economic aspects of their inhabitants. Polis, regarded as a political and religious group of people living in a particular area, had three basic components: the citizens, the political constitution and the territory. The citizens were involved in the construction of public buildings and in a number of other activities. This is probably why the role of communities, which directly defined the polis, was accentuated. At least in part egalitarian character of Greek society, dominated by Athenians, restricted the possibilities of portraying individuals. The tumultuous events of the Classical period spotlighted military commanders and politicians. This trend got stronger in the next centuries. While promoting equality, the poleis honoured beneficial acts and remarkable deeds of their citizens. Public places were filled with typified statues of “andres agathoi.” This statuary landscape of Greek cities, partially preserved in epigraphic finds, has almost disappeared. The importance of euergetism increased in the Late Classical period, becoming one of the main funding sources for the maintenance of public life. Individual citizens were rewarded with honorific inscriptions and were often granted other honours as well (they had a statue erected, were awarded a wreath, given praise, obtained seats in the first row at cultural and sporting agones etc.). The Hellenistic poleis – maintaining autonomy in the utmost sense – granted various honours and privileges to the members of royal dynasties and their close dignitaries. Particular emphasis was laid on military memorials, including equestrian statues, which became an integral part of the public monuments in antiquity.
Keywords: Equestrian; Inscription; Monument; Polis; Statue;
Latinské epigrafické pamiatky ako prameň pre štúdium sociálnych dejín Rímskej ríše (Latin epigraphic monuments as a resource for studying the social history of the Roman Empire)
The presented paper deals with the question of Latin epigraphic monuments as sources for the study of ancient history. Epigraphic evidence is an excellent source of many aspects of the life of all the social classes of the Roman Empire. In this work we deal mainly with Latin epitaphs from the city of Rome, published in the most famous collections of Latin inscriptions (CIL, ILS, ILS, ILLRP and CLE). Funerary, dedicatory and honorable inscriptions offer opportunity to study the onomastic customs of the Roman society. According to the name on the inscription, we know in many cases the social status of the bearer, determine the family relations of the persons on the inscription, estimate the time horizon of the inscription, thanks to cursus honorum we know everything of the person's career. In this work we introduce inscriptions in the Latin original together with own translation, commentary and analysis of individual phenomena. Since most of the inscriptions are epitaphs, we also deal with funerary habits, various burial customs, and traditions common to these inscriptions.
Keywords: Epigraphic Evidence; Roman Empire; Gravestones; Burial Traditions; Onomastic Customs; Social History;
Matej Bel ako historik antických dejín (Matej Bel as a Historian of Ancient History)
Baroque scholar and polymath Matej Bel had mainly established himself in the sphere of history, national history and geography, ethnography and genealogy within Hungarian history thanks to his impressive work Notitia Hungariae novae historico geographica (1735 – 1749), i. e. The Knowledge. He does not leave out ancient times in the description of particular Hungarian counties history (settlements in their area). Thus The Knowledge of Matej Bel represents a precious evidence about shaping opinions of the Ancient Rome in our area from the era of baroque historiography. Regarding his hypotheses, their proving and argumentation in general, Matej Bel presents himself as an erudite historian of the ancient history with great knowledge of antique sources. He critically compares and verifies claims of not only humanist historians, but also his contemporaries. According to Matej Bel, only unequivocally identifiable findings of material culture may be regarded as truly convincing arguments. However, when comes to their historical interpretation, he tries to regard general situation and dynamics of historical development of the Roman Empire in given time and space. Thus, even when he does not have adequate information, his logical consideration of presence and localization of Roman settlements are unusually accurate.
Keywords: Matej Bel (Mathias Belius, Bél Mátyás); Ancient History; Pannonia; Limes Romanus; Historiography of 18th Century;
JANURA, Tomáš – MATEJKA, Miroslav
Kaštieľ v Nitrianskej Blatnici – výsledky historického a architektonicko-historického výskumu (The Manor House in Nitrianska Blatnica - Results of Historical and Architectural-Historical Research)
In the early modern times belonged the village Nitrianska Blatnica to the dominions of Levice and Revište castles. Gradually, smaller separate dominion Blatnica set aside from this area, what instigated building the manor house there. In 70ties and 80ties of the 16th century let to built Ladislav st. Zelemeri - anti-Ottoman warrior and finance administrator of the archibishopric in Ostrihom his own manor house in the village. The manor house belongs to smaller type of partially fortificated manor houses with closed squared ground plan and four towers on the corners. The second phase – Late Renaissance period after 1666 – led by Pietro Spazzo, made to order of baron Ján Eszterházy, gave rise new external appearance of the residence. The third rebuilding phase, performed during 50ties and 60ties of the 18th century in Baroque style, intiated by Amália Limburg-Stirum and Adam Rajcsányi – the counsellor of the Hungarian Chamber and the Statholder´s council, caused that, the manor house gained his modern external visual look in Baroque style. The fifth rebuilding period, initiated the most likely by Austrian businessman Alojz Haase, determined current appearance of the manor house in neostyle. (Translated by Petronela Križanová)
Keywords: Manor House; the Zeleméri Family; the Eszterházy Family; Pietro Spazzo;
TIHÁNYIOVÁ, Monika: Bubekovci z Plašivca – úspechy a pády jedného rodu v politike a umení. (Ján Jakubej) pp. 511–513
Kronika/Chronicle/Chronik – pp. 514–520
Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal / Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia – pp. 521–525
Pokyny pre autorov/Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren – pp. 526–530