Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien
Postavenie biskupa na prelome antiky a stredoveku (The Position of Bishop at the Turn of Antiquity and the Middle Ages)
The paper focuses on the bishop´s position in his Christian community and his position within the Roman Empire, especially after Constantine's turn. The function of the bishop, his position and his powers gradually changed in the Late Antiquity, which was also reflected in the imperial legislation. To some extent, the bishops represented state authorities, especially the judicial ones, and took care of the poor and the needy. As the economic power of the Christian communities increased, the bishops became important members of the local honorability. Nevertheless, their main role remained the pastoral care and administration of the Christian community.
Keywords: Antiquity; Roman Empire; Christianity; Bishop;
Heraldika v prostredí stredovekých uhorských arcibiskupov a biskupov (Heraldry in the Setting of Medieval Hungarian Archbishops and Bishops)
Heraldry represents the most elaborate identification system established in the Middle Ages. Initially, in the first half of the 12th century, coats of arms spread among knights and nobles. Over time, they became adopted by corporations such as town communities, guilds as well as burghers themselves. The oldest known coats of arms belonging to Hungarian ecclesiastical dignitaries are from a later time – the first half of the 14th century. The coats of arms belonging to the oldest phase of Hungarian ecclesiastical heraldry were known only from their depictions on seals. In the 15th century, the diversity of sources widened. Coats of arms represented an important part of owners’ visual presentation. In the circles of the highest ecclesiastical hierarchy, they were also a symbol of prestige and position in the Church structure. The presented study deals with the conditions of coat-of-arms usage among Hungarian prelates. It focuses on the inner structure (content) of these coats of arms as well as their formal appearance.
Keywords: Middle Ages; Kingdom of Hungary; Church Heraldry; Coat of Arms; Archbishop; Bishop; Representation;
„V cnosti svätej poslušnosti.“ Moc a autorita jágerských biskupov v komunikácii s mestom Bardejov v stredoveku (“In Virtue of Sacred Obedience”: The Power and Authority of Bishops of Eger Evidenced in Communications with the Town of Bardejov in the Middle Ages)
This study deals with communications between the town of Bardejov and bishops of Eger in the Middle Ages. The author examines how the ecclesiastical power and authority of the bishops was demonstrated in their communications with the free royal town of Bardejov. The bishops’ power toward medieval towns in the Kingdom of Hungary was primarily manifested in the collection of tithes and exemptions granted in the rights of archdeacons. In the case of Bardejov, there can be found some areas where the power of bishops of Eger (frequently represented by episcopal vicars) was demonstrated. First of all, the episcopal tithe collection caused permanent disputes between the parish priest, town representatives and the bishop. The author describes how the problems were solved and the machinery of episcopal powers in these cases. Another area of communication and the manifestation of episcopal authority was that of judicial cases between burghers, which were occasionally brought before ecclesiastical court contrary to town law. A greatly significant manifestation of episcopal power in the area of the town was that of ecclesiastical rituals and symbolic communication. The study mentions various examples of episcopal presence in the consecration of churches, chapels, altars and liturgical dress.
Keywords: Middle Ages; Towns; Bishops; Episcopal Power and Authority; Communication; Bardejov;
„Regium solium ornat ordo pontificum.“ Biskupi a rex christiannissimus v obraze najstarších uhorských písomných prameňov („Regium solium ornat ordo pontificum.“ Bishops and the rex christianissimus as Depicted in the Oldest Hungarian Sources)
There is a two generation gap between the creation of higher church administration in Hungary during the reign of Stephan I (997 – 1038) and the rise of the sources describing relation between the king and bishops. The only exception is the Libellus de institutione morum, perhaps the most authentic source of this period, preserved however from very late codes. Depiction of mutual relations of the monarch and bishops was created by church authorities in context of canonisation process at the end of the 11th century, following their own interests and goals. The king had been therefore depicted as propagator of the Christian faith with the purpose to replace idolatry and paganism; as supporter of the church in the meaning of institutional and material support; as propagator of the law, meant by the authors of texts as a Canonical law. Lines of the church and faith had been over-crossed in relations between the monarch and bishops, while referring ordinary execution of power. Bishops are depicted as those who are inevitable for execution of profane matters, because “without them there are no installed and ruling kings”. This article is therefore an attempt to make a description of this picture, based on narration coming from 11th and the beginning of the 12th centuries and also an attempt to interpret them as sources describing constitution of Arpádian power structures.
Keywords: Arpádian Legends; Libellus de institutione morum; Church Administration; Stephan I;
Nitriansky biskup Anton a Nitrianska diecézna synoda (1494) (Bishop of Nitra Anton and Diocesan Synod of Nitra (1494))
Synodal activity usually required great organizational and diplomatic skills, theological knowledge, as well as a lot of patience and effort. These assumptions were also manifested by the Nitra Bishop Anton (1492–1500) through the Diocesan Synod of Nitra in 1494. Preserved synodal decrees point to a comprehensive grasp of the topics related to liturgical discipline and clergy discipline. A wide range of topics and their detailed elaboration speaks of the problems that currently plagued the Church towards the end of the Middle Ages. The course of the internal reform of the Diocese of Nitra, which was established by Bishop Anton through the synodal decrees, was so effective that these decrees were confirmed, extended and published in 1560 in Vienna by the Bishop of Nitra Pavol Abstemius Bornemisa (1557–1579). For the life and functioning of clerics and believers, Anton's initiative and effort was an important milestone, as the summoning of the Hungarian Synods in the Middle Ages and the Modern Age was not a matter of course.
Keywords: Synod; Nitra; Middle Ages; Bishop; Authority; Decrees;
Proměny společenského postavení uherských tolerančních pastorů v Čechách a na Moravě v období kolem roku 1800 (Transformations of Social Status of Hungarian Toleration Preachers in Bohemia and Moravia around 1800)
The study analyses initial determination and development of social roles of the Hungarian Protestant pastors’ socio-professional group of the Augsburg and Helvetic confessions, “new born” in Bohemia and Moravia as a result of the Patent of Toleration of Emperor Joseph II. In the period 1781—1815, this group numbered about two hundred individuals. The aim is an assessment of the integration of “foreign” and “strange” pastors into the post-baroque Czech society. Descriptions of the first meetings with pastors testify to the widespread interest, especially from Czech countryside residents, motivated primarily by the curiosity of the unknown and exotic. The author investigates pastors’ strategies to overcome language and cultural barriers, as well as the evolution of social status fluctuating between the elite and the servitorship, which stabilized during the first third of the 19th Century.
Keywords: Social Structure; Socio-professional Group; Intelligentsia; Protestantism; Patent of Toleration; Toleration Preachers; Hungary; Bohemia; Moravia; 1800;
K dělostřeleckému exportu Škodových závodů do Íránu ve třicátých letech 20. století (The Artillery Export of the Škoda Works to Iran in the 1930s)
This article analyses the arms trade between Iran and the Czechoslovak company Škoda Works in the 1930s. When Reza Shah Pahlavi came to power and Czechoslovakia established diplomatic relations with Iran, the Iranian market opened to Czechoslovak companies. This moment was also an opportunity for Škoda Works. Škoda Works needed to compensate (at least partially) the reduction in exports caused by the Great Depression. New business opportunities were offered by the Iranian army which needed modern cannons. At first, it was necessary to persuade Iranian clientele to give priority to the products of the Škoda Works over the competition. The first contracts for the supply of cannons were signed in 1934. The largest business contracts were realized in the following year. However negotiations on some contracts were very difficult and lasted for several years in some cases. Some of the contracts were not very advantageous for Škoda Works. But Škoda Works were forced to sign these contracts to prevent losing Iranian customers.
Keywords: Škoda Works; Cannons; Iran; Export; Ammunition; Negotiation;
KRAFL, Pavel Otmar
Výtah z polských provinciálních statut z roku 1420 v rukopise Mikulovské dietrichštejnské knihovny (Excerpt from the Polish Provincial Statutes of 1420 in the Mikulov Dietrichstein Library Manuscript)
Provincial statutes promulgated by the Gniezno archbishop Nicolas Trąba (1412–1422) in 1420 represent a prominent Polish legal relic. Author describes an excerpt from the statutes in a manuscript No. Mk 108, which is located in the Moravian Library in Brno. The manuscript is a part of the former Dietrichstein Library in Mikulov. The manuscript probably comes from around 1440–1460. It is of pure Bohemical nature and contains mostly theological texts such as tracts and letters by John Hus, tracts by Jakoubek of Stříbro and other theological texts. The excerpt from Trąba's statutes is located in ff. 124r–137v. In some places, the text is literal transcription of selected sections of the statutes (perhaps with small grammatical differences), elsewhere, in particular cases, it also differs factually.
Keywords: Provincial Statutes; Codification; Medieval Canon Law; Codex; Poland; Brno;
K problematike pôrodných babíc Užskej stolice v 18. storočí (To Issue of Midwifes Uh´s Country in the 18th Century)
The issue of midwife´s is related with the history of cities and towns very close. The midwife as a profession existed in the Hungary Kingdom long before the 18th century, but in this century, we reflect names of midwives and their acting, connected to the concrete places. The midwife shows herself as one of the important member of the cities and towns structure. We focus on the territory of the Uh country in this research, where we can study the progress of midwife's profession as well as the application of norms valid in the kingdom. We bring acknowledgement about consecutive increasing of the number of midwife's in this text, and information about their languages and religions. We present two different midwife's oaths and a name-list of each, who are bound to a concrete location, in the Uh country in from the year 1784 to 1785.
Keywords: Midwife; Uh Country; Dailiness; Medicine; Obstetrics;
Kult osobnosti Josifa Vissarionoviča Stalina a Klementa Gottwalda vo vybraných učebniciach dejepisu z fondu Múzea školstva a pedagogiky (The Josif Vissarionovič Stalin's and Klement Gottwald's Cult of Personality in History School Books in the Museum of Education and Pedagogy Fund)
The study deals with the phenomenon of „cult of personality“, that was in the most radical season of communist regime in Czechoslovakia in the years 1948 – 1953 characterized by emphasis on systematic portraying the prominent communist party representatives like infallible and perfect revolutionary heroes. The Marxist conception of communist movement history was in that period deformed by simplification of historical facts with the intention to glorify the political profile of the Soviet dictator Josif Vissarionovič Stalin and the Czechoslovak president Klement Gottwald. In presented text we tried to analyse the ways in which these distortions changed the historical picture of modern world and Czechoslovak history and by this way influenced the process of mastering historical knowledge. We studied the issue of the "cult of personality" in two selected learning texts. We say concretely about school books from The Museum of Education and Pedagogy in Bratislava: History for IV. high school class and The history of ČSR. Learning text for IV. class of Gymnasiums and Pedagogical Gymnasiums. The systematic praise of the founders and the leaders of communist movement should inspire and motivate to adopt ideologically acceptable attitudes, while Stalin's and Gottwald's opponents were shown in exclusively negative connotations. However the cult of personality was not a phenomenon typical only for the era of Stalinism, because his milder forms were the immanent part of communist system.
Keywords: Josif Vissarionovič Stalin; Klement Gottwald; Museum of Education and Pedagogy; Soviet Union; Czechoslovakia; Cult of Personality; School Book;
Vzťahy rusínskо-ukrajinských poslancov z Haliče s nemeckými liberálmi a zástupcami Poliakov v poslaneckej snemovni Ríšskej rady (1873 – 1879) (Relations of the Rusyn-Ukrainians Deputies of Galicia with German Liberals and Representatives of Poles in the House of Ambassadors of the Reichsrat (1873 – 1879))
The article is analysis of relations of the Rusyn-Ukrainians representative office in Vienna with other deputies of the House of Ambassadors and representatives of individual ministries of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Special attention is paid to cooperation of Rusyns-Ukrainians with the German liberals in the educational sphere, law and interpellation activities. The article summarizes examples in a clear form that point to the nature of Rusyn-Ukrainians' relations with other representatives of political parties in the House of Ambassadors of the Reichsrat.
Keywords: the House of Ambassadors; Reichsrat; Galicia; Rusyn-Ukrainians'; German liberals;
Legislatívne rámce sociálneho bývania v Slovenskej republike v rokoch 1939 – 1945 a jeho realizácia na príklade mesta Prešov (The Legislative Framework of Social Housing in the Slovak Republic 1939 – 1945. The Case Study of Prešov)
The aim of contribution is to handle the topic of social oriented housing construction in the period of Slovak Republic 1939 – 1945. The selected period as a interlude between left-engaged architecture of interwar Czechoslovakia and mass social housing construction after 1945, remains still unnoticed. However, Slovak state enforced its own concept of housing policy. The introduction of essential legislative framework of social housing in the selected period, will allow to identify what measures were admitted and why. Therefore the paper emphasizes the ideological background of housing construction. Hypothesis that social housing were intended not only to poorest, but primarily to civil servants is the core of our contribution. The introduction of the process of housing construction in the case study of Prešov city will follow. The choice of this particular city is based on the fact, that Prešov became the biggest town of eastern Slovakia, the regional administration centre and the seat of many important institutions.
Keywords: 1000 Houses for Workers; City of Prešov; Slovak Republic 1939 – 1945; Social Housing; Universal Construction Company;
Muzeologie jako součást kurikula univerzitní a neuniverzitní přípravy muzejních pedagogů (Museology in the Curriculum of University and Non-university Education of Museum Pedagogues)
The declared necessity to professionalize the museum work in what is now the Czech Republic can already be traced back to the first half of the 19th century. The gradual development of professionalization efforts, which were mainly connected with key figures of museums and museology, professional associations and later also with academic education centres, has also led to stratification of professional job positions in museums. Along with this, we can follow up increased demands for erudition of professional museum workers. Together with gradual development of museum pedagogy as a discipline and changes in the spectrum and quality of museum practice in the field of education, this general evolution trend also concerns one of the recently emerged museum professions – museum pedagogues (educators). Hand in hand with dynamic transformations, which in the past five years modelled this profession (particularly with regard to its factual establishment, legislative implementation and competence and qualification standards), various teaching models are evolving in the field of university and non-university education. The study categorizes these key models (according to the current education concept) and brings examples, reflecting the graduate’s profile and contentual construction of the study curriculum. The models show different views on the importance of museology education for future museum pedagogues and its position in their professional training.
Keywords: Museum Pedagogue; Museum Professions; Museology; University Education; Non University Education;
IWAŃCZAK, Wojciech. Jan Lucemburský: Dějiny bouřlivého života a hrdinné smrti českého krále a lucemburského hraběte v jedenadvaceti obrazech (Ján Jakubej), pp. 221–230
VADKERTY, Madeline. Slovutný pán prezident (Listy Jozefovi Tisovi) (Viktória Rigová), pp. 230–231
Kronika/Chronicle/Chronik, pp. 232–235
Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal / Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia, pp. 236–240
Pokyny pre autorov/Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren, pp. 241