Heiner Gillmeister, Deutsche Kurorte als Schaubühnen für die „English sports“ Tennis und Golf
Stadion, Bd. 44, 1/2020, S. 5–33, DOI: 10.5771/0172-4029-2020-1-5
Against the backdrop of the introduction of “English sports” into 19th-century Germany, her famous spas played a significant role in making fashionable games such as lawn tennis and golf popular. These spas were the haunts of well-to-do English pensioners and tourists who became their first and almost exclusive patrons. Places like Bad Homburg were also the first to see first-class English players in action. The presence of these sportspeople, and of both English and German royalty at these spas added lustre to their sporting activities and soon attracted the attention of the German burgher. In addition the coverage these games received in high-class journals such as Sport im Bild, edited by the Rotterdam-born Scotsman Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles, and in the lawn tennis yearbooks by Robert Baron von Fichard of Baden-Baden, encouraged more people to adopt the sport of their social betters. The prestige of German spas radiated well beyond the 20th century. Only recently, their illustrious sporting history has been an asset in their applying for recognition as a UNESCO world cultural heritage site. Their golf clubs have been granted the right to add to their names the epithet “royal”, and one of them, Bad Homburg, will host a women’s tennis event in partnership with Wimbledon, immediately preceding The Championships, in the years to come. The present essay examines the historic part played by the German spas in the country’s sports scenario over the decades. – Keywords: German spas; play movement; cultural transfer; nobility and society; ball games; lawn tennis; golf.
Philippe Vonnard, Gathering Europe in Football: UEFA, the Development of European Football and the Cold War (1949–1961)
Stadion, Bd. 44, 1/2020, S. 34–60, DOI: 10.5771/0172-4029-2020-1-34
At a meeting in Basel on 15 June 1954, 25 of Europe’s national football associations agreed to form a representative body for European football, a decision which would, four months later, give rise to the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). Five years later, the new body had exceeded the expectations of most of its founders and had become one of the most important actors in European football. Furthermore, it appeared as the sole pan-European body as other “European organizations” – created at the same period – in other fields never crossed the Iron Curtain and were mainly composed by Western Bloc or neutral countries. This paper – which summarizes some of the key arguments examined in the book Creating a United Europe of Football (2020) – looks back at UEFA’s formation and early development. In doing so, it examines the issues of why UEFA developed so quickly, even though conditions for this development were not initially conducive, and how UEFA managed to overcome Cold War divisions to become a truly pan-European body. The article brings together information from original archive documents (mainly from UEFA’s and FIFA’s Documentation Centres, but also from national football association archives), French press reports (mostly from L’Equipe and France Football) and interviews with three leading figures in European football during the 1950s. – Keywords: UEFA; FIFA; history; Europe; Cold War; football (soccer).
Alexander Priebe, Die Abteilungen für Luftfahrt an deutschen Universitäten unter dem NS-Regime
Stadion, Bd. 44, 1/2020, S. 61–85, DOI: 10.5771/0172-4029-2020-1-61
On 17 November 1934, the Reich Education Ministry (REM) issued a decree on the “cultivation of aviation in schools and universities”. It aimed at “ensuring the next generation of aviation professionals in the practical, aeronautical, technical, and scientific fields”, the importance of which, according to the REM, “had even increased with the resurgence of the German Luftwaffe”. Hence, universities and colleges of physical education were deemed responsible for further civil and – increasingly – military training and research in aviation, whereas research in aeronautical engineering was carried out at technical universities, under the enforced auspices of the Reich Ministry of Aviation. From 1934 onwards, aviation training would be coordinated by departments of aviation, which were also responsible for the gliding training of students and, above all, sports instructors. The recast decree of 30 December 1939 would expand and enforce training and research defined as “essential for the war effort”. This crucial development, which essentially bolstered the military strategy of the Nazis before and during World War II, i.e., the so-called “Blitzkrieg”, is presented in a detailed overview, based on recently discovered archival sources. – Keywords: Luftwaffe; aviation research; gliding; Directive on University Sports (Hochschulsportordnung); National Socialist Flyers Corps (Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps); Reich Education Ministry (Reichserziehungsministerium).
Jutta Braun, 30 Jahre deutsche Sporteinheit: Von der Epochenzäsur 1989/90 zur geteilten Erinnerung
Stadion, Bd. 44, 1/2020, S. 86–104, DOI: 10.5771/0172-4029-2020-1-86
On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of German Unity in 2020, the article examines the impact of sport during the process of unification and transformation in Germany. It explains why the field of serious sport represented a special area of the German unification process, as West German sport politicians hoped to benefit from East German personal potential and scientific knowledge. At the same time, the groundbreaking reform of the East German constitution since 1990 also led to a democratization of the sports system that shaped society in the “new Bundeslander”. Finally, the often controversial place of sport in united German remembrance culture is outlined. – Keywords: German Unity; “Vereinswesen”; Olympic Games; Remembrance Culture; East German identity; Doping.
Andre Gounot, Vom Vereins- zum Staatssport: Der Transformationsprozess des kubanischen Sportsystems in den ersten Jahren der Ära Fidel Castro (1959–1962)
Stadion, Bd. 44, 1/2020, S. 105–137, DOI: 10.5771/0172-4029-2020-1-105
Based on numerous primary sources, this article provides a detailed analysis of the political and organizational upheavals that sports experienced in Cuba in the early years of the Fidel Castro era. It first shows to what degree the revolutionary government’s ambitious sports policy, which aimed at mass sports right from the start, represented a radical change from the Batista era. In the first phase, in which the restoration of democracy still seemed possible, the State institution Direccion General de Deportes (DGD) cooperated with bourgeois sports associations. The latter, however, were progressively eroded as a result of the increasing competition they faced from the free DGD offers, as well as the emigration of many of their members, coaches and officials. The establishment of a ministry with complete control of sports on February 23, 1961 took place on the one hand in continuity with the developments of the previous two years, and on the other hand, as part of the socialist transformation of society. From then on, all sport activities, both at local and national level, were organized under the control of the State and the revolutionary organizations. The article places the emphasis on amateur sports, but the elimination of professional sport, which happened soon afterwards, will also be discussed. – Keywords: Cuba; sport clubs; sport politics; transformation; Castro; socialism.
Pierre-Alban Lebecq & Jean Saint-Martin, Paschal Grousset et les éducations physiques françaises et étrangères dans le contexte géopolitique européen et impérialiste (1880–1914)
Stadion, Bd. 44, 1/2020, S. 138–157, DOI: 10.5771/0172-4029-2020-1-138
Between 1880 and 1914, the initiatives of French actors in Physical Education and sport increased in France in order to recover geopolitical stability. Paschal Grousset was one of the most active French people to register his proposals in a national and an international debate. Being inspired by foreign systems of Physical Education, in France he aimed to protect physical exercise and participation in Physical Education as a celebration of French national identity. This placed him in opposition to his contemporaries, some of whom promoted Scandinavian, English or Germanic exemplars. He rejected British proposals and criticized openly the German model of Physical Education, Paschal Grousset highlights through his speeches and his practices the obstinacy of a man aware of the weight of international rivalries in the reconstruction of France at the end of the 19th century. Considered today as the inventor of the “republican sport”, he imposed on French territory the educational model of the “hereditary rival” through the demonstration of the role played by physical exercise in the British economic and colonial expansion. At the same time, and without giving up gymnastics, he denounced the model of the “hereditary enemy” by caricaturing German Physical Education and the German education system. However, in both cases, Grousset’s intention was always to retain from foreign exempla only what was in compliance with the values of the French Republic, both in the facts and in the principles. – Keywords: Frenchness; gender; international relations; physical education.
Fabien Conord, Les nationalistes français et le milieu sportif, de l’entre-deux guerres aux années 1960: Une relation privilégiée
Stadion, Bd. 44, 1/2020, S. 158–182, DOI: 10.5771/0172-4029-2020-1-158
Nationalism, a political trend born in Europe at the end of the 19th century, operates in the classical political field through leagues and parties, but also spreads throughout society. During the interwar period, many French nationalist activists became involved in sports federations and the Olympic movement. They formed genuine networks which they mobilised as a political resource. Some of these even managed French sport during the Second World War. After the Second World War, the sports movement played a significant role as a refuge for leaders compromised with the regime set up by Philippe Petain and even with the occupying forces. From the 1920s to the 1960s, many federations were presided over by nationalists (cycling, fencing, swimming, Basque pelota, motor sports, tennis), as was the French Olympic Committee, where Armand Massard and then Jean de Beaumont succeeded each other between 1933 and 1967. This article shows how, through the itinerary of a group of leading figures in the sports movement, the privileged link between French nationalism and certain sports was established over a period of about half a century. – Keywords: France; nationalism; sports federations; Olympism.
Joris Lehnert, Literaturbericht zur neuesten Historiographie der Tour de France – und zu Raymond Poulidors Tod
Stadion, Bd. 44, 1/2020, S. 183–203, DOI: 10.5771/0172-4029-2020-1-183
This review essay aims to present an overview of recent publications on the Tour de France. The death of Raymond Poulidor in November 2019 underlined the impact of the race on French culture and society. The numerous reactions to his death allow us first of all to return to the dominant historiography of the Tour de France interpreting it in the tradition launched by Georges Vigarello. Recent historiography, however, allows us to move away from this classical interpretation by proposing studies focusing on the economic and political aspects of the Tour. The development of the Tour has been determined in the past decades mainly by three phenomena: globalization, professionalization and monetisation by the worldwide media coverage. Following the departure of the Tour 2017 in Dusseldorf, this sporting, cultural and commercial event also seems likely to become a German research object. – Keywords: Tour de France; cycling; Raymond Poulidor; lieux de memoire; globalisation; monetisation; national identity.
Cyril Thomas, Pascal Charroin & Bastien Soule, Les relations franco-kényanes dans les courses de fond: Un processus postcolonial singulier (1960–2019)
Stadion, Bd. 44, 1/2020, S. 204–225, DOI: 10.5771/0172-4029-2020-1-204
At the Mexico City Olympics, Kenya won eight medals in athletics. This performance enabled this State, whose independence dated back just four years, to display its identity to the eyes of the world. Kenyan athletics, mainly in middle- and long-distance events, continued to assert itself until it dominated the medal ranking in the 2015 World Championships. However, even if it is a vehicle for emancipation and identity building, Kenyan athletics is also dependent on external influences. Therefore, even though France and Kenya never had colonial links, they have built interdependent relationships in athletics during the post-colonial era. The purpose of this study is to understand the particular postcolonial process around which these relationships were built, in the absence of colonial ties. We have chosen to conduct this study based on the investigation of minutes of the French Athletics Federation (FFA) committees and the journal L’Athletisme, the official FFA review. We conducted semi-structured interviews with Kenyan and French athletics actors (athletes, managers, race organizers, and federal officials). These data reveal a continuing domination of Kenya, by France, in athletics. This relationship of domination marks a survival of the colonial order. However, Kenyan athletes’ domination, especially in marathons, contributes to the vulnerability of French performances. The singularity of the postcolonial process studied lies as much in the absence of colonial ties between France and Kenya as in the transformation of a relationship of domination specific to the colonial period. – Keywords: postcolonial studies; athletics; Kenya; France; domination; vulnerability.