OBSAH / CONTENTS
Überhöhung, Zerrbild und Klischee: Ein Blick auf Johann von Böhmen und Karl IV. mit den Augen italienischer Beobachter des 14. und frühen 15. Jahrhunderts (Exaggeration, Caricature, and Cliché: John of Bohemia and Charles IV through the eyes of Italian observers of the 14th and 15th centuries)
This article evaluates once more the historiographic and literary images of John of Bohemia and his son Charles IV in Italian texts from the 14th and early 15th centuries. What we find is a peculiar mixture of criticism and apotheosis, sometimes stated by the same authors, depending on the point in time they were writing, and of course the expectations of their potential readers. While John of Bohemia faced overwhelming expectations from Dante after the death of his father, he was branded a naïve yet greedy papal mercenary from the beginning of his Italian Expedition in the early 1330s. His son was more successful in avoiding negative stereotypes and harsh criticisms during his Italian expeditions in his youth, as well as in 1354/55 and 1368/69. In the end, however, even chroniclers that are traditionally considered to have had a positive view of the Luxemburg king and emperor harshly rejected his political actions in Italy. Most of the time, this is connected with the financial interests all foreign monarchs had when establishing temporary rulerships in Italian cities, and the monetary pressures this bore on their citizens; the worn-out cliché, both of contemporaries and historical researchers, that labelled foreign, Central European monarchs as barbaric intruders, could hardly be confirmed. Charles and his father are blamed for being unable to solve the structural problems of Italian and Imperial politics.
Keywords: Charles IV – John of Bohemia – Henry VIII – Empire – Bohemia – Italy – Lucca – Pisa – Florence – Dante Alighieri – Giovanni Villani – Matteo Villani – Petrarca – Coluccio Salutati – Francesco Novati – historiography – chronicles
Lipolt Krajíř z Krajku ve víru husitských válek (Lipolt Krajíř of Kraig in the Hussite wars.)
The topic of this article is the engagement of Lipolt Krajíř of Kraig († 1433) in the Hussite wars. Krajíř was among the innumerable members of Sigismund of Luxembourg’s retinue who actively fought the Hussites in three central European lands. Lipolt’s importance within the Catholic party is especially proven by the fact that he was transferred—by Sigismund of Luxembourg and then by the Austrian Duke and Moravian Margrave Albert II of Habsburg—to places which were long threatened by the Hussites (České Budějovice) or actually under attack by them (Moravia, Austria).
Keywords: Lipolt Krajíř of Kraig – Sigismund of Luxembourg – Albert II of Habsburg – České Budějovice – Bohemia – Moravia – Austri a – Hussite wars
Profesní společenství kutnohorských havířů: cech, nebo pořádek? (The professional community of the miners of Kutna Hora: guild, or order?)
Over the course of the 14th century, Kutna Hora witnessed the constitution of professional organizations of mineworkers. The operation of these corporations, which were founded upon
a principal similar to classical trade guilds, was nevertheless marked by certain specificities. A significant portion of literature to date has therefore operated based on the thesis of the fundamental distinctiveness of these corporations from classical trade guilds. This study attempts to prove the validity of this thesis, and this through the background of the most unique and most numerous corporation of Kutna Hora, the mining community. The transformation of its status in the second half of the 15th century thus allows us to approach the character of both types of organizations, and also certain terminological problems linked to the naming of corporations of mine workers.
Keywords: guilds – mining corporation – Kutná Hora – Vladislaus II Jagiellon – Václav Husa
DISKUSE / DISCUSSION
LUCIE DOLEŽALOVÁ, The “Leipzig libellus” in Zwickau
RECENZE / REVIEWS
Marzena Matla, Czeskie wpływy w życiu religijnym i piśmiennictwie państwa piastowskiego w X–XI wieku (Vratislav Vaníček)
Pavel Bolina – Tomáš Klimek – Václav Cílek, Staré cesty v krajině středních Čech
Magdalena Žáčková, Svět italské komicko-realistické poezie. Toskánská komicko-realistická poezie z let 1260–1492 (Martin Šorm)
Magistri Iohannis Hus Constantiensia, edd. Helena Krmíčková – Jana Nechutová et al. (Pavel Soukup)
ZPRÁVY A REFERÁTY / BRIEF NOTICES