Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien
HUSÁR, Martin – TAMAŠKOVIČ, Jakub
Weapons from the early Medieval Cemetery of Ivanka pri Dunaji-Farkasek in a Wider Context (Weapons from the early Medieval Cemetery of Ivanka pri Dunaji-Farkasek in a Wider Context)
The authors of the scientific article evaluated 12 weapons from 10 graves within the early medieval cemetery of Ivanka pri Dunaji-Farkasek and tried to understand their role and dating in a wider context. They can be divided into 7 axe heads, 4 heads of thrusting pole arms and one sword. Their forms were typical for Great Moravian weaponry and partially kept the Avar Period traditions as well. In relation to the typological and chronological evaluation of the weapons, the burials of the deceased individuals at the examined part of the cemetery might have started even around the middle of the 9th century, or in the first half of the 9th century yet. On the one hand the depositions of weapons in graves of the deceased men were connected with the usual early medieval funerary practices. But on the other hand these men could also have represented regional servants of a superior authority in the eastern part of the Bratislava Gate and/or also sentinels of the terrestrial routes, crossroads and crossings over the local rivers or streams in the area to the south of the Jurský Šúr swamp.
Keywords: The Early Middle Ages; the Avar Period; Great Moravia; weapons; the cemetery; Ivanka pri Dunaji-Farkasek;
Ostrihomský arcibiskup Dionýz zo Seče, významný prelát, politik a diplomat 15. storočia (Archbishop of Esztergom Dionysius of Szécs, Important Prelate, Politician and Diplomat of the 15th Century.)
The Archbishop of Esztergom (lat. Strigonium), Dionisius of Szecs, is considered a controversial figure in historical literature. In a short time, he crowned two Hungarian kings: 14 May 1440 as a faithful servant of Queen Elizabeth her three-month-old son, Ladislav the Posthumous, and 17 July 1440, apparently under pressure, also his enemy Vladislaus I. Despite the indisputable fact of the double coronation, the historians are now more cautious regarding the role of the Archbishop. As an excellent speaker and diplomat, he favored negotiations over violence and was instrumental in settling several seemingly insoluble conflicts. He also played an important role in the election of Mathias Corvinus as King of Hungary, which he eventually crowned (as the third ruler in his life). His merits in the church are also important: despite the difficult period he began to build the cathedral and archbishop's palace in Esztergom, convened several church synods, supported monasteries and increased the importance of the Archbishop of Esztergom by achieving the title Primate of Hungarian churche.
Keywords: House of Szécs (Szécsi); Archbishop; Elizabeth of Luxembourg; Ladislaus Posthumous; Vladislaus Jagiellon; Mathias Corvinus; 15th Century;
Biskup a udeľovanie svätení v stredovekom Uhorsku (The Bishop and the Ordinations in the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary)
Conferring sacred orders – both the inferior (ostiary, lector, exorcist, acolyte) and the superior ones (subdeacon, deacon, priest) – belonged to the sacral authority of bishop. The ordinations were of great importance for ecclesiastical administration of each diocese. In order to provide sufficient spiritual services for his diocese, every bishop had to timely replenish his clergy. Upon their ordination, the clerics would receive simply formulated certificates (littera formata/testimonialis) containing relevant data on their suitability; also, the date of their ordination, name of the ordaining bishop, information on the clerics' origin or home diocese – and, in case of friars, the affiliation to religious order. For the superior sacred orders, there was also information provided on the resources of revenue (titulus ordinationis) and all ordinations the cleric received up to then. Unfortunately, no lists of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary ordination candidates have been preserved; therefore, we entirely depend on litterae formatae, litt. dimisoriales or copies of these documents in manuscripts, usually discovered in collateral researches. Among such manuscripts, there is a code with theological and medical texts belonging to bishop of Pécs, Vít Hündler (1447 –1469): in this code, he recorded the transcripts form litt. formatae from dioceses of Esztergom and Pécs. Based on original sources found on the territory of medieval Hungary, in the papal curia, as well as in the coeval canon law and liturgical manuals or synod dispositions, it is possible to delineate the criteria the ordination candidates had to meet, the dates on which the ordinations took place and the specific way they were conferred.
Keywords: Bishop; Sacred Orders; Middle Ages; Kingdom of Hungary; Litterae formatae;
Biskupi a testamenty uhorského duchovenstva v stredoveku (Bishops and Testaments of Clergy in the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary)
In our paper we deal with testaments of clergymen in the Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages in relation with bishops and archbishops. As the highest ranked officials of the Church, bishops represented guarantees and protectors of testamentary law of clerics. Their episcopal power became a pledge for practical exercise of their testamentary law in the kingdom. They performed tasks as witnesses, executors or they provided confirmation of last wills in higher ranks of the hierarchy. At the same time they were recipients of various testamentary messages in material, financial or spiritual forms or they formed messages of such kinds. In our paper we also analyze personal testaments of bishops and archbishops.
Keywords: Hungary; History; Middle Ages; Testaments; Bishops; Canon Law;
Zločin z panské zvůle? Vražda vrchnostenského písaře Karlem Maxmiliánem z Bleylebenu (Crime of manor despotism? Murder of patrimonial scribe by Charles Maximilian of Bleyleben)
The article deals with the circumstances of the murder committed in 1647 in North Bohemian town Krupka by young Baron Charles Maximilian of Bleyleben against Johannes Brosche, a serf and servant of his father. Thanks to the well-preserved sources, it is possible to trace the course of the case for several years, from the investigation of the crime, but unpunished, to the judicial recovery of compensation and the salary that Brosche was allegedly not paid during his seventeen years of service. At the end of the Thirty Years' War, in 1647, the North Bohemian mining town of Krupka was excited by the murder of the patrimonial scribe Johannes Brosche (1607–1647), committed by the young Baron Charles Maximilian of Bleyleben (1616–1648). Brosche was a serf and servant of his father Alexander Regniers of Bleyleben (1578/1579–1649), the imperial colonel and court war council, the owner of the North Bohemian estates Všebořice and Soběchleby. The extraordinary nature of the studied case does not lie in the event itself, but in the preservation of archival sources, which allow a relatively detailed follow-up of the whole case from its beginnings, albeit without gaps and question marks. Bleyleben committed the deed during a visit to the parish house in Krupka, with no apparent cause, apparently drunk. But it was not by far his first aggressive behavior, he had repeated problems with the law and stayed in both home and regular prison (skirmishes, an attempt to provoke a fight, violation of anti-quarantine, knocking a little boy by a horse). On the other hand, Brosche, 39, had been in the service of his father for seventeen years, had four children between the ages of one and thirteen, and he and his wife were among the most popular people in and around Krupka, which was confirmed by their frequent godmother role. The murder took place in a public place, in front of many eyewitnesses who were able to describe exactly what happened. Bleyleben, perhaps in order to prove to the pastor that he could answer the murder before God, had pierced Brosche with his sword.
The scribe died two days later. Against the young baron then came to the Prague authorities not only his accusation of murder, but also violation of marriage, because married Bleyleben supposedly fathered two illegitimate children with a girl from Krupka. The matter came before the Royal Prosecutor, but we do not know his judgment. Yet we know that the nobleman was not severely punished, neither by prison, nor by a financial fine, or at least by compensation of the survivors. Apparently, his lawyers were able to “prove” that the immediate cause of Brosche's death was not a cord blow, but the subsequent poor after-care and the physical gathering of a 39-year-old scribe! Bleyleben himself was also murdered a year later by Saxon soldiers after a feast at his castle. Meanwhile, Brosche's wife married for the second time, and in 1650 his oldest, fifteen-year-old daughter, too. Their husbands, together with the guardians of other orphans, hired a prominent Prague lawyer Christoph Kyblin of Waffenburg in 1651 and sued Bleyleben's mother. They asked her to pay Brosche's salary, which was allegedly not paid throughout his employment, as well as the so-called blood money as a compensation for killing. However, Anna Marie Bleyleben rejected any orphans' claims. She contradicted the allegation that Brosche would not be given his salary, and pointed out the possible embarrassment that the murdered servant was to commit. Last but not least, she claimed that she did not inherit anything from her son and therefore does not feel obliged to pay anything instead of him.
Keywords: Early Modern Time; Murder; Nobility; Serfs; Litigation; Family of Bleyleben;
PIŠÚT, Peter – PROCHÁZKA, Juraj
Pol tisícročia v stavebnej histórii a topografii Zvolenského Podzámku (Half millenium in the construction history and topography of the village Podzámok (manorial village of Zvolen Castle))
The town of Zvolen with a population of over 43 000 is an important regional center and traffic node of Central Slovakia. Although in close neighbourhood of the town, historical Podzámok or Subcastle quarter (Zólyom Várallya in Hungarian) made historically an administrative unit subordinate to Zvolen castle, not to a free royal town. The castle itself was since 13th Century also the seat of both the Zvolen County and Zvolen castle domain. In this paper we reconstruct the shape and evolution of Podzámok over time. As a service village of the castle, earliest structures by royal courtyard already existed prior to 1244 AD. They were represented by a toll-house, manor house, barns, royal garden and a fishpond, respectively. Since 1619 AD the habitation became a property of Eszterházi House. Medieval buildings were gradually supplemented by houses of clerical staff, brewery, lord´s pub, butchery, mill, saw-mill, artisan workshops and cottages. Spatial development of Podzámok was not only influenced by military function of the castle, but also by local natural conditions (= flooded area of river Slatina). The 18th Century was a period of relative economic boom, in contrast to a consecutive 19th century. Besides historical written data, our knowledge of Podzámok is mainly based on little-known plans and maps of 1708-1711, 1753 and 1860, respectively. The last standing buildings of Podzámok – besides the castle itself and the cannon bastion – are those of manorial brewery and distillery.
Keywords: Zvolen Castle and Town; Historical Maps; Defences; Land Use; Slatina River;
Příprava a průběh návštěvy Ericha Bielky v Československu (Preparation and course of Erich Bielka's visit to Czechoslovakia)
In the mid-1970s, the relationship between Czechoslovakia and Austria determined decisively the context of the Cold War. Some easing of tensions in international politics enabled the signing of a property settlement agreement in December 1974. The signing of that document started the beginning of gradual improvement to the bilateral relationship. Evidence of improvement of mutual relations was provided on 23–26 April 1975 by the first official stay of the Austrian Foreign Minister in the history of Czechoslovakia. While Erich Bielka emphasized human rights issues, Czechoslovak officials wanted to talk mainly about deepening trade cooperation. Meanwhile, the hosts anxiously avoided controversial topics to give the impression of the beginning of a new phase of relations with Austria. However, Vienna evaluated the sudden turn of the Czechoslovak communists with a certain distrust. Erich Bielka strictly observed the department's competencies and therefore refused to make any binding promises. To this, his subordinate was probably instructed by the Federal Chancellor Bruno Kreisky, who assessed the whole situation with cautious optimism. A long and often the winding process led to a further deepening of Czechoslovak-Austrian cooperation in the following years.
Keywords: History; 20th Century; Czechoslovak-Austrian Relations; Bruno Kreisky; Bohuslav Chňoupek;
_STARODUBEC, Galyna – POPP, Ruslana¬
The Policy of Sovietization of the Western Regions of Ukraine in 1944 – 1953 through the Propagandist Symbols and Rituals (The Policy of Sovietization of the Western Regions of Ukraine in 1944 – 1953 through the Propagandist Symbols and Rituals)
The article deals with the peculiarities of the process of Sovietization of the western regions of Ukraine in the first postwar years. The problem of using the political symbols as tools of propaganda by the authorities is particularly emphasized. The scientific novelty is that the process of symbolizing the living space of the population of the Western Ukrainian region in the period of restoration / establishment of Soviet power there is disclosed in the article. The authors indicate what The main promoters of the spread of "Soviet" were the propaganda and agitation departments of regional and district committees of the CP(b)U in Western Ukraine. The change of symbolic space occurred through the creation and implantation into the public consciousness of a new narrative of the historical uniqueness of the Soviet state of the Stalinist format.
Keywords: Western Regions of Ukraine; Sovietization; Propaganda Symbols and Attributes; Mass Media; Public Events;
Nález včasnonovovekých kachlíc na území Šintavy (The Finding of Stove Tiles from the Early Modern Period in Šintava)
A huge collection of ceramics finds was discovered by digging a basement on the court of the family house in the village Šintava (district Galanta, Slovakia), in March 2020. For this reason, the Department of Archaeology at Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra realized archaeological excavation. During the excavation were documented three settlement features, which were secondary filled mostly with the ceramics. Some of them were fragments of stove tiles, especially panel stove tiles with different types of motifs. In this study, the collection of stove tiles are presented and evaluated by iconography, morphology, type-chronological classification, and also an extension on the territory of Slovakia. The finding itself is also evaluated within Šintava past settlement.
Keywords: Šintava; Early Modern Age; Stove Tiles; Iconography; Stove Tiles Production;
Hrad a mesto Nitra v Belových Vedomostiach (Castle and Town Nitra in Bel’s Notitia)
Matthias Bel – author of the work Notitia Hungariae Novae historico-geographica (in English the Historical and Geographical Knowledge of New Hungary). In Knowledge of contemporary Kingdom of Hungary (Notitia Hungariae Novae), Matej Bel (Mathias Belius, Bél Mátyás) gives a detailed geographic, historical and ethnographic description of particular Hungarian counties from the position of 18’s century man. The work is written in Latin. In the present study is published the first Slovak translation of the historical part of the Notitia of the Nitra County, in which Bel describes the history of the castle and the town of Nitra.
Keywords: Matthias Bel; Nitra County; Historical and Geographical Knowledge of New Hungary; the History of the Castle and the Town of Nitra;
PALÁRIK, Miroslav – HASAROVÁ, Zuzana
Hospodárska a socioekonomická situácia v Nitre a v Nitrianskom okrese v odbobí autonómie Slovenska (Economic and Socio-economic Situation in Nitra and in the Nitra District in the Period of Autonomy of Slovakia)
The paper deals with regional history. It researches the economy in Nitra and the Nitra district during the autonomy of Slovakia (1938 – 1939), focusing on the socioeconomic situation of the city and its population. It analyzes the form of political decisions, newly adopted regulations, laws and measures at the national level and their impact on the selected region. It focuses on the areas of infrastructure, pricing, organizing financial collections for the defense of the state. It examines the direct and indirect impact of mobilization on the economic situation in the city, effect of selected events (such as the Second Vienna Award, the declaration of Slovakia's autonomy and others) on local companies, firma and their production. He also notices the growing manifestations of anti-Semitic, anti-Czech but also anti-Hungarian behavior, supported by contemporary propaganda. The article also describes specific cases of policy interventions in the lives of selected citizens through numerous restrictions and sanctions. The study is the first probe into the economic history of a selected area with a time span of October 1938 - March 1939. The research is primarily based on archival sources, period print and scientific literature.
Keywords: Nitra; Autonomy; Economy; 20th Century; Regional History;
Českobudějovická diecéze v období episkopátu Šimona Bárty ve světle Třeboňského archivu (Diocese of České Budějovice during the Episcopate of Šimon Bárta in the Light of the Třeboň Archive)
The study deals with the life, work and activities of the Bishop Šimon Bárta (1864-1940) in the period 1920-1940 when he headed the diocese of České Budějovice. The study is based on the sources of the state regional archive in Třeboň (Bishop's Archive collection), periodicals, documents of an official nature and numerous literature. Bárta's life is set in the historical-religious context of the first and second Czechoslovak Republics and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia while it tries in thematic blocks to reconstruct the episcopal work of the eighth bishop of České Budějovice. There are important parts of his administration of the diocese which the text also includes such as the holding of the Eucharistic Congress in 1927, the transformation of the local priestly seminary, national tensions and the bishop's position in the hierarchy of Czechoslovak bishops. The work is an interesting contribution to the Church history of the first half of the 20th century.
Keywords: Šimon Bárta; Diocese of České Budějovice; First Republic; Religious Matters; Pastoral Praxis;
Nadaný fyzik a vynálezca Ferdinand Stark (1900 – 1930) (Talented Physicist and Inventor Ferdinand Stark (1900 – 1930))
This paper introduces new details about the life and work of Ferdinand Stark (1900 – 1930), a talented Jewish physicist and inventor from Ružomberok. Presented information corrects and adds the information that has been published about him so far. The information concerns Stark’s high school studies in Ružomberok, his university studies in Budapest, Brno, and Prague, where he earned his doctorate degree in physics. The article further deals with Stark’s work in Berlin, his publications and patents, the death of his parents, and inheritance records. The content of his book and two scholarly articles co-authored with Otto Blüh, information on the reviewers of his dissertation, on the co-authors of publications and patents, on the company he sold his patents through, and on the impact of his work is also discussed. All this information makes it possible to better emphasize Stark’s importance for the regional history of Ružomberok.
Keywords: Ferdinand Stark; Albert Einstein; Tobis Tonbild-Syndikat AG; Heinrich J. Küchenmeister; Franz Ehrenhaft, Otto Blüh;
Analýza komponentov dejepisných učebníc pre špeciálne základné školy (Analysis of Components of History Textbooks for Special Primary Schools)
The article describes selected specifics in the functions of the textbook for pupils with mild mental disability. It also compares history textbooks for special primary schools with the framework model of a history textbook for this type of schools. Then the article describes the components of the framework model in more detail and points to the low level of equipment of history textbooks for special primary schools in the discussion of the results of the comparison too.
Keywords: History; Quantitative Research; Mild Mental Disability; Framework Model; Special Primary School; Textbook;
VACULÍK, Jaroslav – PIWOWARCZYK, Mirosław (eds.). Češi a Poláci na Ukrajině ve 20. století. Czesi i Polacy na Ukrainie w XX wieku. (Pavel Otmar Krafl) pp. 551–553
Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal / Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia – pp. 554–558
Pokyny pre autorov/Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren – pp. 559–563