OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Silva Bereg. Kráľovský les v stredovekom Uhorsku
(Silva Bereg A Royal Forest in Medieval Hungary)
The author of this study is concerned with researching the Bereg royal estate, which formed part of the frontier regions of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. In the 11th century Bereg belonged to the great frontier county of Boržava, but formed an independent territory within it. A separate county organization under noble control was established in it only later. Its centre was a royal manor, where the kings of Hungary settled people of German origin in the first half of the 13th century. Its importance mainly lay in the fact that it was a dynastic property of the House of Arpád at least from the 11th century. It was a part of the Carpathian mountains dominated by forests. Members of the Arpád dynasty often went there to hunt. In Western Europe such properties were known as forestes and the prerogatives of the monarch prevailed there. It is very probable that forest properties of the dynasty including Bereg were also protected by special rights of the monarch in the Kingdom of Hungary. According to all the evidence, Bereg was a royal forest where members of the Arpád dynasty hunted, and it had an internal organization similar to that known from Western Europe.
Kingdom of Hungary. House of Arpád. Frontier region. Bereg. Ugoča. Royal forest. Hunting. Dynastic property. Comitatus and districtus. Comes and procurator.
Inštitút manželstva v novoveku na pozadí sporu o rozluku Jána Dubničku versus Alžbety Magyaryovej
(The institution of marriage in modern times against the background of the dispute over the separation of Ján Dubnička and Alžbeta Magyaryová)
Marriage was considered an institution subject to Church law from the beginning of Christianity in ancient Rome. As a result, marital disputes concerning the origin, existence and dissolution of marriages between Catholics or between Catholics and members of other churches belonged exclusively to the jurisdiction of the courts of the Catholic Church and were decided according to canon law. The author introduces the study with a general consideration of Catholic legal or canonist teaching, binding not only in the Kingdom of Hungary, but in the whole Catholic Church according to the norms valid after the Council of Trent. The account is based mainly on commentaries and glosses by modern civil law experts from Hungary. However, the general theoretical consideration forms only the essential and considerably reduced theoretical basis for the second part of the study, which is conceived as one of the first legal history soundings into the history of the institution of marriage in Slovakia using the example of an ecclesiastical court case on the temporary separation or annulment of the marriage of the Dubničkas, who lived in the Free Royal Borough of Trnava in the first half of the 19th century. The dispute caused a prolonged conflict, which grew beyond the private family sphere and became a publicly known social scandal and lifelong trauma especially for the husband Ján Dubnička, explicitly presented in his will, which reveals the intimate, psychic level of the whole micro-historic dispute.
Catholic marriage. Canon law. Church. Council of Trent. Reform of marriage. Marital dispute. Separation at table and in bed. Annulment/invalidity of marriage. Free Royal Borough of Trnava. Dubnička versus Magyariová scandal.
Písomné a obrazové pramene k banskoštiavnickej rodine Reutter ako východisko pre konštrukciu kultúrneho sveta meštianskych elít stredoslovenských banských miest v závere 16. a prvej polovici 17. storočia
(Written and pictorial sources on the Reutter family of Banská Štiavnica as a basis for reconstruction of the cultural world of the elite in the central Slovak mining towns in the late 16th and first half of the 17th centuries)
Concentration of the written and pictorial sources on the Reutter family of Banská Štiavnica forms the material part of the study, which aims not only at critical analysis, but also at an effort to reconstruct the culture and experience of a representative Central European individual in the late 16th and first half of the 17th centuries. The text also attempts to grasp the methodological possibilities for interpreting historical sources reflecting the cultural experience of the urban Lutheran elites in the mining towns of central Slovakia, especially with regard for models of patronage, and not only in the field of fine art and craft, but also of early modern education and literature. The study also tries to answer the question of whether the historiography of art offers a viable and open way to interpret the form and meaning of contemporary culture for a specific person from a particular social group, if we work with textual sources or only with a limited sample of surviving works coming mainly from artistic crafts rather than high art.
Mining towns of central Slovakia. Ulrich Reutter. Album amicorum. Medal. Golds-mithery. Early modern donations and patronage.
ŠPROCHA Branislav – TIŠLIAR Pavol
Obraz rómskej populácie v Uhorsku na konci 19. storočia
(The image of the Romany population in the Kingdom of Hungary at the end of the 19th century)
Apart from the large ethnic groups, the multi-ethnic Kingdom of Hungary also included several less numerous historic autochthonous and alochthonous ethnic groups. We can describe the initially nomadic Romany group as relatively late arrivals. Thanks to their ethnic difference they were symbolically and often also really excluded from the majority society of the Central European region. As a result of some degree of isolation from the main social developmental currents, the Romany still retained various specific characteristics in late 19th century Hungary, in spite of more or less intensive efforts to achieve their complete integration. One of the important instruments for monitoring the success of individual measures and preparing evidence for their formulation was various types of census. From the point of view of content and methodology, the most important is the census of Romany in Hungary at the end of January 1893. It is a unique source of information on the character of the Romany population in Hungary at the end of the 19th century. The aim of the paper is to consider the background to the census of Romany in 1893, its causes, preparation and implementation, as well as to analyse the main and some specific characteristics of the Romany population of Hungary in 1893 on the basis of the available published data.
Romany. Kingdom of Hungary. Census of Romany in 1893. Age. Sex. Marital status. Literacy. Mother tongue. Religious confession. Source of subsistence. Housing.
Tripartitná komisia a československé menové zlato
(The Tripartite Commission and the Czechoslovak gold reserves)
The study considers questions related to the functioning of the Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of Gold Reserves created by France, the USA and Great Britain in 1946. Its role was to verify and distribute the gold reserves of 10 European countries stolen by Germany during the Second World War. One of the recipients was Czechoslovakia, which lost more than 45 tons of gold reserves in 1939-1940. The study is directed towards the marathon of talks between the commission and Czechoslovakia in the period 1947-1952, which finally led to recognition of the Czechoslovak claim to a share of the gold. However, this was blocked by pressure from the USA and it was eventually physically returned only in 1982.
Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of Gold Reserves. Gold reserves of Czechoslovakia. Illegal transfer to the Reichsbank. National Bank of Czechoslovakia. Slovak National Bank.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Veča. Príspevok k dejinám slovanského práva
(The veche. A contribution to the history of Slavonic law)
The veche has its regular place in the scientific and textbook literature. It is described as a popular assembly, which as a legal authority has traditionally wide competences in society. The origins of this type of gathering are often sought in the oldest past of the Slavs and therefore it is believed that veche accompanied the legal evolution of almost all the Slavic nations or societies. Various gatherings in medieval sources, mentioned in Latin as colloquium, placitum or under other terms were covered in literature by this Slavic term known from the Primary chronicle and therefore also with its imagined competences. This model of the process of the gathering, as was pointed out by Jacek Banaszkiewicz or Karol Modzelewski, is based on the notes of Tacitus, Thietmar and Helmold, compared with those from Novgorod and Pskov. The paper explores the powers and duties of the veche, compares the different phenomena that are brought together under this term in literature from various places in Europe and from various stages of history. The main goal of the text is to analyse whether or not the veche was a legal institution as is traditionally believed and most of all whether it was typical for communities named in medieval sources as Slavs.
Slavs. Middle Ages. Legal history. Popular assembly. Veche.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
FALISOVÁ Anna – LENGYELOVÁ Tünde, Bioterapie optikou histórie;
FALISOVÁ Anna – TAKÁČ Peter – LENGYELOVÁ Tünde, Výskum a vývoj nových bioterapeutických metód (Katarína Pekařová) S. 361
KRAKOVSKÝ Roman, Réinventer le monde. L´espace et le temps en Tchécoslovaquie communiste (Michal Kšiňan) S. 363
*KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK