OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Veľkomoravské kontexty v ranostredovekej sakrálnej architektúre na Slovensku
(Great – Moravian contexts in early- medieval architecture in Slovakia)
Great Moravian religious architecture is now a reality proved by a multitude of archaeological finds. Thanks to the latest research in the territory of Slovakia, we can rely not only on archaeological finds, but also on some standing buildings with the greatest probability belonging to this period. It is clear from the information available at present that Great Moravian religious architecture was heterogeneous and derived from various Christianizing centres. The latest exact analyses show that after the break up of Great Moravia as a state, its fragmented remnants survived in the form of family domains and new religious buildings were erected in the course of the 10th century, something considered impossible until recently. The author devotes attention to possible expressions of the tradition of the Great Moravian churches as models for the construction of new churches in the initial stage of the young Kingdom of Hungary. He points to the results of the latest research and analyses the possible typological and design features, which may fix the Great Moravian architectural tradition in this period.
Early medieval religious architecture. Typological areas. Great Moravian tradition. Churches. Ground plan types. Slovakia.
Sociálna a zdravotnícka starostlivosť v Uhorsku v prvej polovici 19. storočia
(Social and health care in the Kingdom of Hungary in the first half of the 19th century)
The study is concerned with the changes in social and health care in the Kingdom of Hungary in the first half of the 19th century. In this period social care became more systematic and was gradually separated from health care. Apart from town administrations and religious institutions, charitable societies began to significantly contribute to charitable activities. Under the influence of the central government, local authorities began to devote increased attention to such categories of dependent people as the mentally ill, single mothers and illegitimate children, who had previously been scorned or punished by society. Educational institutions for deaf-mute and blind children were a new element on the regional level.
Kingdom of Hungary. 19th century. Social care. Health care.
Impact of the Great War on the conditions for the development of the hospitality industry in Gorizia/Görz/Gorica and its surroundings
This paper attempts to promote awareness of the Great War and its impact on the tourism and hospitality industry in Gorizia and its surroundings. With review and analysis of archival materials and secondary sources, and finally formulation of the results we fill an identified void in the past research. We find out that Gorizia and its surrounding area was an attractive tourist destination of the Austrian Littoral, with exceptional natural and socio-cultural predisposition, good transport links, tourism infrastructure and superstructure. However, the way of doing business and structure of guests changed during the Great War (Isonzo front), because of constant bombardment, damaged buildings and other infrastructure; economic chaos and similar circumstances had great implications. In addition, we also find out that the recovery immediately after the war and development of the tourism and hospitality industry in the new Italian region was also very difficult and gradual.
Great War. Hospitality industry. Tourism. Business conditions. Gorizia.
CHYTKA Stanislav V.
Církev československá v L iptovské Osadě
(The Czechoslovak Church in Liptovská Osada)
In the first third of the 20th century several movements arose in opposition to the Catholic clergy in Liptov. Apart from the most famous events at Černová in 1907, there was also the formation at Liptovská Osada of the only purely Slovak community of the Czechoslovak Church. It was the result of several years of conflict between the villages led by their priest Matťašovský and the dictation and apparently also fraud by representatives of the Catholic Church. Very sharp, sometimes violent confrontations with an impact on political relations occurred here in the 1920s. In this situation the only church in Slovakia belonging to the Czechoslovak Church was built at Liptovská Osada. The Czechoslovak Church was banned after 14 March 1939.
Czechoslovak Church. Liptovská Osada. Andrej Hlinka. Ján Matťašovský. Ján Vojtaššák. Ľudová banka (People’s Bank). Fraud. Disputes about a church building. Formation of a Czechoslovak Church community. Struggle over a parish and its church. Excommunication. Building a church for the Czechoslovak Church.
Mocensko-politické zápasy vo vedení Komunistickej strany Slovenska v rokoch 1950 – 1953
(Power-political struggles in the leadership of the Communist Party of Slovakia in 1950 – 1953)
The paper is focused on the Communist Party of Slovakia, power and political relations between communist functionaries in the 1950s. During the IXth Congress of the Slovak Communist party in 1950 the so-called bourgeois nationalists, previously influential high communist functionaries like Gustáv Husák, Ladislav Novomeský or Karol Šmidke, were finally eliminated and criticized. After elimination of these members of the Slovak communist elite the position of the Chairman of the Communist Party of Slovakia, Viliam Široký, was strengthened. He was the most powerful politician in the party at that time. However this situation was changed by the development during the next three years, which were characterized by ongoing political downfalls and arrests of many communist functionaries, some of them Široký’s close co-workers. After the death of Josif Vissarionovič Stalin and Klement Gottwald in 1953 the position of V. Široký weakened and funcionaries oriented towards the First secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Antonín Novotný prevailed on the political scene.
Communist Party of Slovakia. IXth Congress. Viliam Široký. Power and political relations. Communist functionaries. Leadership of the Communist Party. Political changes.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Latinské etnonymá Slovákov v stredoveku a novoveku: Sclavi, Pannoni, Slavi
(The Latin ethnonyms of the Slovaks in medieval and modern times: Sclavi, Pannoni, Slavi)
The author concerned himself with identifying, describing and explaining the exceptional phenomenon of the gradual introduction and changes of the Latin ethnonyms for the Slovaks in the Middle Ages, when they were named “Sclavi”, and especially in modern times when they appropriated the invented ethnonym “Pannoni”, and finally also “Slavi”. By giving up the ethnonym “Sclavi”, they wanted to escape from the interpretation “sclavus = slave, prisoner” familiar in the non-Slovak environment of the Hungarians and Germans. These ethnonyms are found in Latin texts of domestic Slovak and Hungarian or foreign Czech, Austrian and Polish origin. They took over the ethnonym “Sclavi” from the surrounding European environment, but the ethnonyms “Pannoni” and “Slavi” were their own linguistic initiative and product. It was only in the first half of the 19th century, when educated Slovaks gave up using Latin as the written, official language, that they abandoned the invented ethnonym “Slavi”. The ethnonym “Slováci” was normally used in texts written in Slovak from the 15th century.
Slovakia. Slovaks. History. Latin ethnonyms Sclavi, Pannoni, Slavi.
ARCHÍV / ARCHIVES
Dokument Užhorodskej únie z 24. apríla 1646
(The Document of the Union of Užhorod from 24 April 1646)
The union signed by 63 priests in 1646 at the Uzhgorod castle became the basis for later full unification of Eparchy of Mukachevo with the Catholic Church. The Charter of April 24th, 1646 says the details of this unification. This document attests the development on the issue of unification with the Catholic Church, which took place in the clergy of Eparchy of Mukachevo in the mid-17th century.
Greek Catholics. Mukachevo. Eger. Union of Uzhhorod.
Otvorený list newyorských Slovákov grófovi M. Károlyimu z roku 1914
(An Open Letter from the New York Slovaks addressed to Count Mihály Károlyi, published in 1914)
The author of the paper presents An Open Letter addressed to Count Michael Károlyi, published in 1914 as one of the important manifestations of American Slovaks against Magyarization prior to World War I. The letter is published in extenso (both in the English and Slovak languages). In addition, the author explains the context in which the letter was written, its goals, the response of the Hungarian or Magyar side and its importance for the further development of the liberation movement.
An Open Letter addressed to Count Michael Károlyi (1914). American Slovaks. Magyarization. Memorandum of the Slovak League of America (1914-1915).
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
MOSNÝ Peter – LACLAVÍKOVÁ Miriam, Slováci a slovenská štátnosť 1939 – 1945 alebo nemali by sme už konečne prijať našu štátoprávnu minulosť? S. 545
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
DRAHOŠOVÁ Viera (Ed.), Skalica (Eva Frimmová) S. 555
LONDÁKOVÁ Elena, Slovenská kulúra v rokoch 1968 – 1970 (Vlasta Jaksicsová) S. 558
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK