OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
15. zjazd Slovenskej historickej spoločnosti
(História, historiografia a etika)
Veda, historiografia a etika
(Science, historiography and ethics)
The introductory paper from the conference of the Slovak historical community, “History, historiography and ethics” is devoted to general questions of the relationship between ethics and science with regard to the specifics of historiography. The relationship between science and ethics can be perceived in two ways: on the gnoseological – methodological level and on the level of the subjective morality of the scientist as the researcher. On the gnoseological – methodological level, ethics connect directly with the essence of human knowledge and its limits. However, the really important thing is the position of the individual scientist. Ethical problems are connected with mistakes and the willingness to admit mistakes and work with different hypotheses. In science, however, results of research are often falsified, evidence or sources in the case of historiography are manipulated. Scientometria, the question of the accessibility of the results of scientific research, but also ideology and unwillingness to see the wider social and moral impacts of scientific research are further problems in the relationship between science and ethics.
Key words: Historiography. Ethics. Knowledge and ethics. The moral position of scientists. Historiography as a science.
Konštruktivistické chápanie histórie a jej etická dimenzia
(The constructivist understanding of history and its ethical dimension)
The author of the article introduces Hayden White’s, Frank Ankersmit’s, and Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen’s constructivist understanding of history. He contrasts their understandings of history with the traditional understanding, which supposes direct correspondence of historical work to the past. In his presentations of constructivist thought, he points out their emphasis on legitimate possibilities of different methods of construction and ways of presentations, which result in different historical representations of historical events. Differences among historical representations of the past can also be related to the historian’s choice of different constructive methods and also the involvement of his/her preferred moral and political values. These constructivist understandings of history, with the deeper analysis of process writing, incite the historian to deeper ethical self awareness of his/her work.
Key words: Constructivism. Plurality. Values. Historical work. Past.
Historický prameň a etika (na stole, pod stolom a kdesi inde...)
(The historical source and ethics (on the table, under the table and somewhere else))
The study points to various examples from Europe of varied and rather scandalous relationships between the historian and the historical source. Political aims and absence of historical self-reflection are usually hidden behind them. Slovak experience is no better in this area. It includes a whole series of negative examples of both older and very recent cases. One of the new trends is the continuing superficial publication of sources. Absence of theoretical consideration of the methodological questions of historiography still persists. Texts remain on the empirical level and do not progress towards generalization. In conclusion, the German example shows how to productively work with sources, and how this can harmonize theoretical findings with examples from practice.
Key words: Historical source and historical practice. Politics in history. Absence of historical self-reflection. Source editions. Manipulation. Exemplary use of sources and theoretical generalization.
Historik a médiá v dobe povrchnosti
(The historian and the media in an age of superficiality)
The scientist and so also the historian needs to work with the media to publish and propagate the results of his or her work. Historians are often addressed by journalists and publicists for cooperation, and frequently the information provided is misused, twisted or inappropriately paraphrased and the ethical code of journalists is coarsely violated. The journalists themselves are aware of this problem and they attempt to solve it through their professional bodies. The article is devoted to the unfair ways of using the work of historians in journalistic practice. It appeals for improved relations by means of observance of professional and ethical rules.
Key words: Ethics in the media. The historian in the media. Information. Plagiarism. Ethical codes.
Sociálna funkcia historického poznania a vedecké písanie dejín v 21. storočí
(The social function of historical knowledge and scholarly history writing in the 21st century)
In the 21st century historiography remains epistemologically diverse like no other discipline in the social sciences and humanities. Theoretically uninformed, often nationalist, and objectivist (reconstructionist) narrative historians coexist with constructionist and deconstructionist historians who work with social theories and conduct critical analyses within the same institutional frames of regional or national historiographies. In spite of decades of intense plausible criticism – at least in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe – the national/nationalist history writing based on rather naïve objectivist epistemology remains influential and forms an important, if not dominant, part of the respective national historiographies. The present paper suggests that there are several factors in the lasting reproduction and even thriving of the obsolete epistemological positions that traditional, narrative national/nationalist historiographies are based on. These might be categorized as cognitive, social, and institutional in their nature. The paper analyses particularly the social purpose of knowledge about the past and the social functions of institutionalized professional history writing. National histories play an important part in the politics of memory and identity; they provide a historical dimension to the ideal (imagined) national community, they also serve as legitimizing or delegitimizing narratives – these functionalities require a strongly objectivist (naïve) epistemology. In fact, the epistemological points of departure of the traditional narrative national/nationalist historians are very similar to the intuitive “pre-cognitive” theories of the past shared by most ordinary people. Both are based on the idea that the past can be narrated in a form of one true story. The paper comes to the conclusion that historiographies – at least in the Central and Eastern European countries – are formatively influenced by social determinants coming from outside the discipline to much larger extent that most of the historians are ready to admit.
Keywords: Social function of history. Historiography. Abuse of history. Legitimization through history. Epistemology of historiography.
Etika bádateľa vo vzťahu k minulosti a súčasnosti
(The ethics of the researcher in relation to the past and present)
The ethical dimension of the work of the historian is multi-dimensional. It is most frequently associated with trivial failure to respect rights of authorship or not mentioning the sources from which a historian drew information, which is perceived as unethical by the lay public as well as the by the professionals.
However, the relationship of a researcher to the past and so also his interpretation of the events is hidden from the eyes of the public and difficult to uncover even for experts. It is determined by many factors, especially the fact that a researcher belongs to a particular group in the population and holds its values. This penetrates into his evaluation and description of the past, sometimes leading to underthrusting of the public with his own or group „truth“. The question of the ethical behaviour of the historian appears at this point. It is more serious because the work of a historian is difficult to monitor but has a real impact on society.
Key words: Historical research. Ethics of the researcher. Interpretation of history.
Ochrana osobných údajov podľa zákona o archívoch a registratúrach – problém prístupu k informáciám pri výskume
(The protection of personal data according to the Act on archives and registers – the problem of access to information during research)
The author summarizes the present legal situation on the protection of personal data in Slovakia and the European Union. She describes the legislation concerning personal data and their protection, as well as the possibilities for their use in historical research in Slovak archives.
Key words: Personal data. Act on archives and registers. European directives.
BENKO Juraj – GOGOLÁKOVÁ Elena
Plagiátorstvo vo vede, etické štandardy a autorský zákon
(Plagiarism in science, ethical standards and authorship legislation)
Plagiarism has represented a bulging ethical and legal problem in recent decades. It is one of the dominant forms of academic dishonesty, both in the university and scientific environments. Various factors provide fertile soil for it - from the commercialization of education, through the digitalization of information technologies, to the growing competition for publication in the world of science. Various initiatives and discussions have reacted to this problem. They are striving to establish ethical behaviour and zero tolerance to academic dishonesty. The movement for “good scientific practice”, “scientific integrity” and standardizing measures in the academic environment is an important instrument for preventing and eliminating plagiarism. The transfer of ethical standards and their mutual harmonization is part of the integration of individual national sciences into the international base. In the end, this process contributes to establishing concrete steps and norms, enabling the consistent identification, judgement and sanctioning of plagiarism in scientific work. The legislative norms of the individual states remain key legal pillers of any norm setting in the field of scientific practice and in the struggle against plagiarism. In Slovakia this means especially the Act on Rights of Authorship. On the other hand, its use in solving cases of plagiarism has proved to be less effective than a consistent approach in the framework of the academic world.
Key words: Plagiarism. Ethics in science. Publication ethics. Scientific integrity. Rights of authorship.
Otázniky nad vysokoškolským štúdiom histórie
(Questionmarks over the university study of history)
A lively public discussion has developed in the last year about the poor state and bad direction of education in Slovakia. This paper endeavours to identify the problems of higher education, especially from the point of view of study of history, and present proposals to solve them, which existing discussion has not noticed or appreciated. According to the author the quality of university education is limited by the inappropriately high number of institutions, low number of staff in each and therefore the closedness and limitation of research possibilities. A further problem is the low flexibility of the staff of the universities. For example, institutions have only a few possibilities to provide jobs for people finishing doctorates and almost no possibilities to use post-doctoral scholars. This could be changed if small institutions merged into larger units, doctoral study was improved, and, above all, the grant system could be radically reformed. The development of higher education is also complicated and put in doubt by the accreditation approach. Its criteria absolutize the quantitative indicators of research and the formal signs of study, rather than tracing their real quality. The author also points to the need to improve the preparation of teachers, especially history teachers, pointing to the harmfulness of rational formalism and the marginal weight of moral principles and psychological skills, as well as the lack of continual education of teachers. The author thinks that only early and deep reforms can enable the universities of Slovakia to begin to fulfil the tasks required by present day demands and become internationally competitive.
Key words: Faults in the education system. Institutions. Grants. Doctoral and post-doctoral scholars. Training of teachers. The history teacher and morality.
Diplom ako záručný list
(The diploma as a letter of guarantee)
The paper discusses the function of the diploma as a “letter of guarantee“ for a graduate in history. Besides being a proof of passing the required study curriculum, which can be useful mainly in contact with potential employers, getting hold of a diploma should ensure that the graduate is compatibility with the professional environment. A person with a diploma in history should be sure that there is a highly qualified supervisor and an examination board, ready to confirm his or her professional abilities. Such a person should rely on an intense five year socialization to academic writing and reviewing practice, on experience with intense exposure to professional feedback related to quality of argumentation. Last but not least, a history graduate should be oriented in the professional underworld of phoney conferences, predatory scientific journals and fabricated research.
Key words: Study of history. Curriculum. Diploma. Professional skills.
Historik medzi mlynskými kameňmi (Analýza aktuálnych kritérií hodnotenia kvality výstupov vysokoškolského výskumu v oblasti historických vied na Slovensku a ich praktické dôsledky)
(A historian between millstones (An analysis of the current criteria for evaluation of the quality of university research in the field of the historical sciences in Slovakia and their practical results).)
The study analyses the present criteria for evaluating the quality of published work in the historical sciences at universities. It traces the criteria used when distributing grants, deciding on comprehensive accreditation and during qualification procedures. The analysis shows that the current criteria are inconsistent in content, do not correspond to the tradition of research and do not react to the current problems of research in the field of the historical sciences in Slovakia. The study also points to the fact that bad setting of the criteria are bringing into practice a whole series of negative phenomena, which include casting of doubt on the value of the humanities for society, efforts to evade the criteria by means of various questionable strategies, decline in the quality of research and the whole academic environment.
Key words: Slovakia. Universities. Historical Sciences. Scientometria. CREPČ. Comprehensive accreditation. Qualification procedures.
Hodnocení výsledků vědy a výzkumu v oboru “Historie” v České republice v letech 2013-2016
(Evaluation of the results of science and research in the field of “History” in the Czech Republic, 2013-2016)
In this review study the author summarizes the development of the system for evaluating science and research in the Czech Republic in recent years, and considers the way this system is applied in the historical research community. It is a specific system of point evaluation of published results closely connected with the amount of financial resources from the state budget granted for the development of the research organization. This model of financing was gradually introduced in the Czech Republic in 2010-2012. In 2013 the evaluation system was significantly adjusted and strengthened according to the “peer review” principle, which gives substantial weight to qualitative criteria. The results of science and research published in the Czech Republic in all fields of science in the years 2013-2015 were evaluated according to this evaluation system called “Metodika13+”, the principles of which have been described in detail by the author. The evaluation was done in the years 2014-2016 with the assumption of moderate extension into the beginning of 2017. The author very positively evaluates the fact that in this system the evaluation is done exclusively by important members of the research communities, who were proposed for this work by the research institutions. No “professional evaluator”, who has not produced any significant scientific results himself, can express his view on the quality of scientific results. All substantial data are publicly accessible, including the actual results, their evaluation in terms of points and the names of the members of the evaluation panel, so that the quality of the work of the evaluation panel can be retrospectively judged by the expert community. These facts guarantee a relatively high level of objective evaluation. In the conclusion of the study, the author gives a brief review of the qualitative division of the published results from the field of “history” in the Czech Republic. In 2013 a total of 1862 results appeared and in 2014 a total of 1781 results, but the total number of results for 2015 is still not available. He cites specific book titles, which were evaluated by this method as the most important scientific achievements of Czech historiography in the evaluated years.
Key words: History. Evaluation of results. Methods of evaluation. Financing of science and research. Czech Republic, 2013-2016.
Historiografia v preprojektizovanom svete
(Historiography in an over-projectized world)
Historical research in Slovakia is done in the form of projects. The system aims to improve the competitiveness of scientific work and the quality of the results. The grant commission of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic are ultimately responsible for deciding on the approval and financing of projects. In the process of evaluating projects they must also solve questions of an ethical and moral character.
Key words: Historiography. Organization of research. Project system,. Grant commission.
Začnime od seba: kvalita verzus kvantita alebo kde sa stratili korektúry?
(Let’s Start with Ourselves: Quality versus Quantity or is the Editing and Proofreading Lost?)
The paper reflects briefly on various challenges and problems that historians in Slovakia face today. The author used an internet questionnaire to examine experience of historians with present-day editorial and proofreading practice in publishing, since this is one of the indicators of the quality of published texts. Unlike some global, long lasting and complex problems that historians deal with today, proofreading is one of the areas that can be improved immediately on an individual level and can help to increase the quality of the published research results.
Key Words: Editorial practice. Proofreading. Questionnaire. Historical sciences problems. Scientometrics. Quantity versus quality
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
KAMENEC Ivan, K článku Petra Mosného a Miriam Laclavíkovej Slováci a slovenská štátnosť 1939 – 1945 alebo nemali by sme už konečne prijať našu štátoprávnu minulosť? S. 745
DRGO Ján, Reakcia na diskusný príspevok Kataríny Zavackej publikovaný v Historickom časopise v č. 4/2015, s. 679-687 S. 751
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
KOVÁČ Dušan a kol., Dejiny Slovenskej akadémie vied (Miroslav T. Morovics) S. 755
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK