OBSAH / CONTENTS
METODOLÓGIA A HISTORIOGRAFIA / METHODOLOGY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY
LUŽNÝ Dušan – VÁNĚ Jan
Koncept kolektivní paměti – základní východiska a závěry
(The concept of collective memory – basic starting points and conclusions)
The study identifies the notion of collective memory and, particularly, its crucial elements that might be used as helpful research tools. It is based on the analysis of a memory thematizing socio-cultural context and of the existing sociological theories. It also draws on the findings of memory and cultural studies and psychology. The study identifies a total of 16 key elements (principles) of the collective memory concept, out of which the following are the most significant: a) understanding memory as a tool to understand and explain the present, b) addressing both the inner plurality of cultural memory and the plurality of cultural memories within a society, c) making the difference between the cultural and communicative memory, d) considering the significance of individual memory, e) understanding memory as narration, f) identifying the signification of schematic narrative templates.
Key words: Collective memory. Sociology. Narration. Schematic narrative templates.
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
K vzniku a správe predmestí stredovekých Košíc
(The origin and administration of the suburbs of medieval Košice)
The author is concerned with the suburbs of the town of Košice in the Middle Ages. He assesses the question of the origin of the suburban settlements and their administrative position, both secular and ecclesiastical, in relation to the town. The aim of the study is to find out whether some suburban settlements of medieval Košice had older origins than the privileged town itself. Such circumstances would probably be reflected in administrative arrangements. However, the achievement of a more comprehensive result is obstructed by the fact that there has been hardly any archaeological research in the given territory, and more extensive written sources begin only in the Late Middle Ages.
Key words: Košice. Medieval town. Suburbs. Town administration. Ecclesiastical administration. Urban topography.
Franz Paul Rigler: Anleitung zum Gesange, und dem Klaviere, oder die Orgel zu spielen – príbeh jednej učebnice hudby
(Franz Paul Rigler: Anleitung zum Gesange, und dem Klaviere, oder die Orgel zu spielen – the history of a music textbook)
The author of the first textbook for learning to play the piano: Anleitung zum Klavier für musikalische Lehrstunden, published in Vienna in 1779, was the composer and music teacher Franz Paul Rigler (1747 or 1748 – 1796), one of the most important figures in Bratislava’s musical life in the last quarter of the 18th century. The needs and aims of the Music School at which he worked from 1779 to 1796, led to him creating his life’s work: Anleitung zum Gesange, und dem Klaviere, oder die Orgel zu spielen (Budapest, 1798), intended for students training to be teachers at the secondary (normal) school in Bratislava. Clarification of the process of creation and publication of this work over a number of years reveals complex circumstances involving the publication of three versions of the second edition of the first textbook (1791, 1792/1793, 1793) with title pages varying in typographic arrangement and different, partly false impressos, which supplement and correct the previously known and inaccurately copied data about the author and his work in the field of musical education. The information and connections presented in the background of the “story of a music textbook” also gives a picture of the musical, educational and publishing environment of Bratislava and the emerging authors’ and publishers’ rights in the Kingdom of Hungary at the end of the 18th century.
Key words: Franz Paul Rigler. The Music School at the Normal School in Bratislava. Anleitung zum Klavier für musikalische Lehrstunden (1779). Anleitung zum Gesange, und dem Klaviere, oder die Orgel zu spielen (1798).
Pribinove slávnosti ako pripomienka cirkevno-národnej veľkomoravskej tradície
(The Pribina anniversary as a celebration of the religious and national tradition of Great Moravia)
The 1930s was an extraordinarily complex period in Czechoslovakia. The economic crisis contributed to the new escalation of the nationality problem. The discontented regions also included Slovakia, where the people had reservations towards the ideology of the state “Czechoslovak nation”. A basic factor was also the conservative inclinations of the Slovak people and the associated influence of Christianity. The government endeavoured to use this in favour of Czechoslovak unity, since according to the knowledge of the time, 1933 would be the 1100th anniversary of the consecration of the first Christian church in the territory of Czecho--slovakia. However, the defenders of Slovak national aspirations also attempted to use Prince Pribina’s historic act in their favour. The supporters of the two camps came into conflict on the main day of the so-called Pribina celebrations, and this influenced the later perception of the whole event. However, it was a distorted picture because the anniversary was celebrated over several months. Emphasis on the antiquity and cultural maturity of Slovakia predominated during most of the associated events.
Key words: Christianity. Pribina. Slovakia. Autonomy. Czechoslovak nation.
„Klérofašizmus“? Katolicizmus a radikálna pravica v stredoeurópskom kontexte (1918 – 1945)
(“Clerical Fascism”? Catholicism and the Far-Right in Central European Context (1918–1945))
The study deals with the somewhat controversial issue of the so-called “clerical fascism”. For this purpose, it summarizes the recent historiographical debates on totalitarianism, in particular on “political religions” or rather politicization of religions in the 20th century. The special emphasis is laid on individual clerics who sympathized and collaborated with fascist regimes in Nazi Germany and the Slovak state, respectively. In applying Roger Griffin’s and Thomas Forstner’s typology, two types of attitudes to fascism and National Socialism are discussed: loyalty and active collaboration.
Key words: Politics. Religion. Catholicism. Fascism. National Socialism. Clergy.
Slovenská armáda a protižidovské pogromy na okupovanom území ZSSR v lete 1941
(The Slovak army and anti-Jewish pogroms in the occupied part of the USSR in 1941)
The study analyses the reactions of members of the Slovak army stationed on the Eastern Front to the emerging genocide against the Jewish population in the conditions of Nazi occupation during the first weeks of the war. On the basis of the available sources, the author states that under the influence of the propaganda, which accused the Jews of supporting the Bolshevik regime, intense anti-Semitic feelings also resounded among the Slovak soldiers at the front. Many soldiers, including the highest representatives of the army, openly approved of violence against the Jews as an act of just revenge, even when it acquired the character of genocide. In some cases, there was voluntary participation by soldiers in anti-Jewish pogroms carried out by the local population. The author also analyses the official attitude of the leadership of the army to violence against Jews, and describes it as ambivalent. The author also considers the reaction of the Ľudák representatives in Slovakia, who increased their anti-Jewish rhetoric and radicalized their anti-Jewish measures including preparations to deport the Jews to the Nazi extermination camps, in spite of the fact that they knew that genocide was beginning.
Key words: Slovak Republic 1939 – 1945. War against the USSR. Holocaust.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Historiografia v Historickom ústave SAV v rokoch 2015 – 2016
(Historiography in the History Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in the period 2015 – 2016)
The publication activity of the researchers of the History Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in the period 2015 – 2016 was successful and rich. A wide range of work appeared from almost all chronological periods of Slovak history and some selected problems from general history. The positive results of Slovak historiography have continued. The most important results came from academic projects supported by the grant agencies: Centre for Excellence of the SAS (CE SAV), Agency for Research and Development (APVV) and the grant agency VEGA. More than 50 books were published, including individual and collective monographs, source editions, volumes of papers from academic conferences and popularizing publications. They were produced by notable domestic and foreign publishers including VEDA publishing house of the SAS, Universum, EU publisher, Lidové noviny publisher and the Society of the Slovaks in Poland.
Key words: Historiography. History Institute of the SAS. Slovakia. Academic research. Scientific grant projects.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
ALBERTY Július, Zamyslenie sa nad reedíciou župnej monografie Gömör-Kishont vármegye z vydavateľstva Patrióta S. 727
KOHÚTOVÁ Mária, Reakcia na časť štúdie profesora Romana Holeca S. 733
HOLEC Roman, Odpoveď prof. M. Kohútovej S. 735
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
KOVÁČ Dušan – KOWALSKÁ Eva – ŠOLTÉS Peter a kol., Spoločnosť na Slovensku v dlhom 19. storočí (László Vörös) S. 737
MAGOCSI Paul Robert, Chrbtom k horám. Dejiny Karpatskej Rusi a karpatských Rusínov (Magdaléna Lavrincová) S. 744
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK
Copyright (c) 2021 by H-NET, Clio-online and H-Soz-Kult, and the author, all rights reserved. This work may be copied and redistributed for non-commercial, educational purposes, if permission is granted by the author and usage right holders. For permission please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.