OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Antické poznávanie Dunaja od 8. storočia pred n. l. do 1. storočia n. l.
(The ancient exploration of the Danube, 8th – 1st centuries BC)
The Danube was one of the most important rivers in ancient geography. Its upper and middle course divided the Romans from the tribes to the north, while its lower course separated the Greek world from the Scythians. In ancient thought it was not only a real natural barrier, but also the boundary of the oikumené, the meeting place between the civilized world and the mythical north. The study considers the phases of the process of discovering the Danube from its first mentions until Augustus, when its whole length was known as a result of Roman expansion. The whole process of exploration is evaluated on the basis of ancient sources, epigraphy and archaeological finds. Relevant events are mentioned, and the sources of various ideas and traditions are analysed.
Key words: Danube. Antiquity. Ancient geography. Herodotos. Augustus.
Obyčajové právo mešťanov do 13. storočia
(The customary rights of burghers up to the 13th century)
Since the mid 20th century the author has researched and described the development of burghers and towns in Slovakia starting from the 13th century. However, by the end of the 20th century, he realized that towns and burghers existed and developed continually in this part of Central Europe from the 9th century. He has described this in several studies. In a recent study, he presented his own findings about the development of burghers and towns. In the present study he describes the origin and development of the customary rights of burghers in Slovakia and the Kingdom of Hungary up to the 13th century. Since they did not originate in the 11th – 12th centuries, there are no direct texts from Hungary about the burghers and towns of the period, so the author has used all the provisions of charters from kings of Hungary from the middle third of the 13th century about the privileges of burghers in dozens of towns.
Key words: Kingdom of Hungary. Slovakia. History. Middle Ages. Bur-ghers. Customary rights of burghers.
Boj o kostely, aneb Kauzy údajného porušování Rudolfova majestátu v předbělohorských Čechách
(The struggle for churches or the Case of the violation of Rudolf’s Imperial Charter in pre-White Mountain Bohemia)
The study is concerned with events connected with the alleged violation of Rudolf’s Imperial Charter (majestát) after 1609, when some towns in Church and chamber lordships were convinced by lack of clarity in the document that they were entitled to build their own non-Catholic churches. At Broumov, Hrob and Nové Strašecí the dispute reached the level of rebellion against the authorities, and was seen by the Czech Protestant Estates as proof of oppression by the Catholics.
Key words: Bohemia. Early Modern. Religion. Rudolf’s Imperial Charter (majestát). Broumov. Hrob. Nové Strašecí.
„Situácia ešte nie je kritická...“ Problémy vládnutia na Slovensku v korešpondencii medzi Markovičom,Benešom a Šrobárom (február – máj 1919)
(«The situation is not yet critical… » The problems of controlling Slovakia in the correspondence of Markovič – Beneš – Šrobár (February–May 1919))
The study analyses how the prevailing situation in Slovakia during the first months of 1919 was reported in part of the official or more informal correspondence between Ivan Markovič and Vavro Šrobár on the one hand and Edvard Beneš on the other.
Some specific material problems occurred and the Czechoslovak authorities faced the reluctance of part of the civilian population. They also had to cope with the Italian military mission that was widely considered unreliable and Hungarian-leaning.
The core of the correspondence is made up of considerations on the material and political uncertainties arising from the lasting shortages, the weakness of the nascent Czechoslovak apparatus and the latter’s difficulties stabilizing the situation in the whole region (and more specifically in some counties). As the weeks went by, the importance of a final decision regarding the borders with Hungary was firmly underlined, while the Slovak authorities were poorly informed on the overall diplomatic and political situation in Paris. Meanwhile, Slovak political Catholicism remained ambiguous and led agitation challenging and potentially weakening the Czechoslovak authorities. Markovič’s correspondence expresses the instability of the Czechoslovak authorities’ positions, shifting between partial improvements and lasting difficulties. At the end of April 1919, the overall situation remained precarious.
Keywords: Ivan Markovič. Vavro Šrobár. MPS. Italian military mission. Slovak political Catholicism.
Hledání vhodného spojence: Konec slovensko-jugoslávských vztahů a navázání styků mezi Slovenským státem a nezávislým státem Chorvatsko v roce 1941
(The search for an appropriate ally: the end of Slovak – Yugoslav relations and the establishment of relations between the Slovak state and the Independent State of Croatia in 1941)
The text analyses relations between the Slovak state and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia immediately before the German invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, and the subsequent establishment of relations between Slovakia and the Independent State of Croatia. On the basis of primary sources, the contemporary press and relevant literature, it explains how far the Slovak state relied on cooperation with Yugoslavia and on Yugoslav support and how the Yugoslav leaders viewed Slovakia. It also presents the foundations on which Slovakia began to build relations with the Independent State of Croatia from April 1941, and the perspectives or possibilities for these relations in the further course of the war.
Key words: Slovakia. Yugoslavia. Second World War. Germany. Italy. Independent State of Croatia. Cooperation.
SENČEK Richard R.
Formovanie Dokumentačného centra pôšt v Bratislave a v Banskej Bystrici v 80. až 90. rokoch 20. storočia
(The establishment of the Post Office Documentation Centre in Bratislava and Banská Bystrica in the 1980s and 1990s)
The author devotes his attention to the most recent period of history and the establishment of the so-called documentation centres in Slovakia after 1982, the division of property between the Slovak and Czech republics after 1993 and the effort to transform the Post Office Documentation Centre into a museum. It was a reaction to the long-term absence of cultural institutions, in contrast to the Czech Republic, where the situation was incomparably better. After the origin of the Slovak Republic, the documentation centres actively participated in the division of joint property. However, their position was not equal to that of the museums in the Czech Republic, and this was later expressed in an effort to completely liquidate them. Some of them, for example, the Post Office Documentation Centre, were successfully transformed into museums. In this way, Slovakia gained several technically oriented museums, which are still working to fill in the blank spaces in the documentation of the history of society. The account ends around 1997–2000, when the centre moved to Banská Bystrica and was definitively institutionalized as a museum.
Key words: Slovak Post Office. Documentation Centre. Post Office Museum. Division of property of Czecho-Slovakia. Postage stamp creation. Philately. Museums. Bratislava. Banská Bystrica.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Úloha viery v sociálnom zápase na príklade pastierskeho listu slovenských biskupov z novembra 1924
(The role of faith in a social struggle using the example of the Pastoral Letter of the Slovak bishops of November 1924)
The social movement that developed in Slovakia after the end of the Great War succeeded in capturing the left-wing parties - Social Democracy and the Communist Party. In particular, communists in the ideological struggle did not hesitate to use the alleged parallels of communist ideas with Christianity. Thanks to this tactic, they were also successful among religious populations. Therefore, efforts to establish Christian-oriented trade unions in Slovakia were not too successful. Thus, in November 1924, through the Pastoral Letter, the Slovak bishops entered the conflict and watched with concern the rising anticlerical movement in Czechoslovakia.
Keywords: Pastoral Letter. Slovakia. Ideological conflict. Trade unions. Social interests.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
KÁZMEROVÁ Ľubica a kol., Premeny osvety a vybraných školských výchov-no-vzdelávacích prostriedkov na Slovensku (1918 – 1939) (Ľudovít Marci) S. 345
MORAGLIO Massimo, Driving Modernity. Technology, Experts, Politics, and Fascist Motorways, 1922–1943 (Michal Ďurčo) S. 348
DRÁBIK Jakub, Fašista. Příběh sira Oswalda Mosleyho (Maroš Melichárek) S. 351
MACHÁČEK Michal, Gustáv Husák (Jan Pešek) S. 361
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK
Copyright (c) 2021 by H-NET, Clio-online and H-Soz-Kult, and the author, all rights reserved. This work may be copied and redistributed for non-commercial, educational purposes, if permission is granted by the author and usage right holders. For permission please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.