OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Formy komunikácie politických elít v stredovekej strednej Európe (Uhorsko, Rakúsko, České krajiny, 1250 – 1350)
(Forms of communication of the political elites in medieval Central Europe (Hungary, Austria and the Czech Lands, 1250–1350))
The aim of this article is to give an account of the ritualized ways of communication of the ruling communities of the high and later Middle Ages in the Central European region. It focuses on the neighbouring realms of Bohemia, Hungary and Austria in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (c. 1250 – c. 1350). It argues that the ruling communities were formed from diverse political groups, most prominently represented by the ruler and his entourage (dynasty, court) on the one hand and the elites (both lay and spiritual) on the other. The rule (lordship) over a particular realm was a mixture of co-operation, competition and compromise between these groups. Secondly, these political communities therefore felt the constant need for public representation of their status, rank and symbolic role within the society. Effective ways to express belonging to a political group included a range of symbols, gestures and specific rhetoric.
Key words: Communication. Ruling elites. Power. Central Europe. Rituals.
VRTEL Andrej – MARETTA Robert Gregor
Poklad keltských mincí objavený v Bratislave roku 1776: lokalizácia miesta nálezu
(A hoard of celtic coins discovered in Bratislava in 1776. Localising the find site)
The study addresses the localisation of the hoard of Celtic coins discovered on the land of S. Ormosdy in a suburb of Bratislava in 1776. Written reports on the find from the period (J. H. Eckhel, K. G. von Windisch) and their comparison with information on S. Ormosdy’s land ownership history in historical-topographic material, church registers, official town books and historical maps are used for the purpose of determining the location. A critical analysis of preserved sources clearly indicates that the hoard was situated in the Blumentál suburb, specifically in the space demar-cated by today’s Belopotockého, Mýtna, Povraznícka and Žilinská streets. From the perspective of the structure of the Late La Tène settlement agglomeration, the area belonged to the ‘satellite settlement’ near Námestie slobody (Freedom Square), where three additional hoards of Celtic coins were found in 1927, 1937 and 1942.
Key words: Coin hoard discoveries. Bratislava-type Celtic coins. Stephanus Ormosdy. Blumentál suburb. Bratislava oppidum. Satellite settlement.
Podnikanie v réžii aristokrata: založenie a prvé roky súkenky v Uhrovci (1845 – 1851)
(Business directed by an aristocrat: the establishment and first years of the textile factory at Uhrovec (1845–1851))
The (Fein) Tuchfabrik at Uhrovec was established in a region that apparently lacked material and infrastructure pre-conditions. However, the project had another comparative advantage – the strong capital of the owner, a rich aristocrat with connections that enabled him to successfully establish himself in the economic space of Upper Hungary. Count Karl Zay was a supporter of liberalism and of progressive business aims such as railways and steam ships. The factory had various company shops and a network of customers across the Kingdom of Hungary. In the revolutionary period it began to profit from supplying the army, county units and the gendarmerie or police. However, state orders were also a risk factor in the form of unrealistic conditions from the side of customers, which gradually began to threaten the profitability of the business. At the beginning of this cooperation, the factory immediately began to make losses, which began to threaten its functioning.
The study analyses the process of establishment of the factory, the financial questions of building and equipping it, the questions of personnel and the material functioning as well as the social security of the workers, a large proportion of whom were women.
Key words: Kingdom of Hungary. Uhrovec. Karl Zay. History of manufacturing. Textile industry. 19th century.
Ladislav Novomeský a slovenská kulturní obec v propagandistické kampani proti tzv. buržoaznímu nacionalismu na jaře 1951
(Ladislav Novomeský and the Slovak cultural community in the propagandist campaign against the so-called bourgeois nationalists in spring 1951)
In spring 1950 the poet and commissioner for education Ladislav Novomeský was tactically accused of so-called Slovak bourgeois nationalism. Under the influence of Soviet advisers in the State Security Service, the accusation of ideological deviation was reclassified as a criminal offence and Novomeský ended up in prison together with other functionaries in February 1951. After their arrest, a propagandist campaign was unleashed against so-called bourgeois nationalism. The leadership of the Communist Party of Slovakia combined it with purges of the Slovak intelligentsia. Novomeský became one of the victims. Communist intellectuals were included on the initiative of politicians and party apparatchiks. Their speeches and articles sharply condemned Novomeský’s poetry, his literary views, expert work and activities in the fields of education and culture. For a number of years, the campaign damaged Czech – Slovak relations and the development of the Slovak political and cultural spheres. It marked Novomeský’s life, since his conviction became the basis for the charges against him in the trial of so-called Slovak bourgeois nationalists in 1954.
Key words: Ladislav Novomeský. Davisté. Communist Party of Slovakia. Propaganda. Bourgeois nationalism. Repression. Political trials.
„Konflikt začal v Sarajevu a zde i skončí“: historický kontext tzv. reintegrace hlavního města po válce v Bosně a Hercegovině v roce 1996
(“The conflict began in Sarajevo and here it also ended”: the historical context of the so-called re-integration of the capital city in 1996 after the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina)
The study aims to analyse the controversial and so far, not sufficiently explored circumstances which preceded the re-integration of Sarajevo after the end of the Bosnian conflict at the beginning of 1996 and its specific consequences (especially the flight of Bosnian Serbs from Sarajevo). The facts on the ground that caused the majority of Serbs to leave their homes have still not been thoroughly analysed and in many cases remain unclear. Empirical evidence has been gathered from extensive field research based upon the qualitative interviewing project (in 2016 and 2017) and written texts of the fragmented media scene in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main focus of the paper is to analyse the internal and external causes that initiated and influenced the flight of Serbs from Sarajevo.
Key words: Sarajevo. Dayton peace agreement. Re-integration. Serbs. (In)voluntary migration.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
MIKULÁŠOVÁ Alena – PALÁRIK Miroslav
Revízia znakov, symbolov, pamätníkov a sôch v období autonómie a Slovenskej republiky 1938 – 1945: príklad mesta Nitra
(The revision of shields, symbols, monuments and statues in the period of autonomy and the Slovak Republic, 1938–1945: the example of the city of Nitra)
The period 1938–1945 brought extensive changes to the territory of Slovakia in all spheres of life. The public spaces did not escape the attention of the regime and were affected by numerous decrees. The consistent revision of shields, symbols, monuments and statues was a significant aspect of this. The process occurred in several phases. The first removed material reminders of the Czechoslovak Republic and democratic system. Jewish symbols were eliminated. Later the representatives of the regime concentrated on monuments to the so-called “Hungarian saints” and symbols connected with the period of the Kingdom of Hungary. This effected not only secular but also sacred spaces, and government officials came into conflict with the highest representatives of the Church in Slovakia. In the end, this prevented the consistent completion of the action.
Key words: Nitra. Sacred objects. Statues. State symbols. 1938–1945. Totalitarianism.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
BADA Michal, Slovenské dejiny II. 1526 – 1780 (Július Bartl) S. 547
HOLLÝ Karol, Andrej Kmeť a slovenské národné hnutie (Ján Golian) S. 550
BABJÁK Juraj, Bolesť v kameni ukrytá (Martin Posch) S. 554
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK
Copyright (c) 2021 by H-NET, Clio-online and H-Soz-Kult, and the author, all rights reserved. This work may be copied and redistributed for non-commercial, educational purposes, if permission is granted by the author and usage right holders. For permission please contact email@example.com.