OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Príspevok k založeniu uhorskej kaplnky v Aachene kráľom Ľudovítom I. (1360)
(Contribution to the Foundation of the Hungarian Cha-pel in Aachen by King Louis I (1360))
King Louis I of Hungary founded the chapel in Aachen for Hungarian pilgrims, providing it with relics of Hungarian saints and liturgical equipment. The chapel in the Gothic style was added to the south side of the church. Maintenance and operation of the chapel, as well as supplies for two chaplains, were provided from the surrounding markets, and the land was acquired in cooperation with the Aachen town authorities. The chapel with its equipment and two chaplains was placed in the care of the town and canons in 1370. Pope George XI granted an annual indulgence to all who confessed and visited the chapel. Henry Abbot of Pilis abbot meritoriously contributed to the chapel foundation. His mission referred to negotiations and contractual provision of all relevant matters. The chapel had served its purpose for a few centuries when it burnt down in 1656. Later it was reconstructed in the Baroque style.
Key words: Kingdom of Hungary. 14th century. Louis I. Aachen. Church History. Pilgrimage.
Obsadzovanie úradníckych postov v Spišskej stolici v rokoch 1711 – 1785
(The Filling of Official Posts in the County of Spiš in the Period 1711–1785)
The study is devoted to tracing the officials in the administration of the County of Spiš: assessors, deputy reeves, ordinary reeves, deputy fiscals, fiscals, tax collectors, auditors, treasurers, deputy notaries, notaries and deputy sheriffs. For each post, the period of its existence and its standard or specific position in the framework of county administration in Hungary are analysed. Tracing the length of terms of office, whether there were age limits for particular functions, whether there was career progression and which families held individual offices in the given period is an important part of the text.
Key words: Deputy sheriff. Máriássy family. Görgey family.
Konflikt loajalit. Postoje slovenského episkopátu v procesu složitého provádění modu vivendi 1928–1935
(Conflict of Loyalties. Attitudes of the Slovak Episcopate During the Complicated Negotiation of the Modus Vivendi Agreement 1928–1935)
Within the framework of conflicts of loyalties, the author analyses the variable attitudes of the Slovak episcopate between 1928 and 1934 towards the complex negotiations regarding the application of the Modus vivendi agreement. In the unstable post-war social, political and economic climate, the Czechoslovak state imposed a sequester on the Slovak ecclesiastical estates. This progressively caused dissatisfaction, scepticism, and distrust amongst Slovak church dignitaries; leading to severe complaints to the Vatican against the Czechoslovak government by representatives of the Catholic Church in Slovakia, led by the Bishop of Spiš, Msgr. Ján Vojtaššák. The conflict within the state culminated in secret negotiations that took place in December 1932 and June 1934 between the Slovak bishops and the Archbishop of Esztergom Jusztinián Serédi.
Keywords: Modus vivendi. Slovak episcopate. Diocesan boundaries. Relations between Czechoslovakia and the Holy See. Administration of Church estates. Loyalty.
TIŠLIAR Pavol – ŠPROCHA Branislav – ŠKORVANKOVÁ Eva
Trendy a smerovanie populačnej politiky na Slovensku v rokoch 1918 – 1945
(Trends and Directions in Population Policy in Slovakia, 1918–1945)
The paper is concerned with the main changes of direction in population policy in Slovakia in the period 1918–1945. Gradual appearance and deepening of changes in reproductive behaviour in the framework of the demographic revolution was characteristic of this period. The number of births decreased and so did infant mortality. On the other hand, limited possibilities for application outside the primary sector forced many people of productive age to seek employment abroad. The population policy of inter-war Czechoslovakia was contradictory and unsystematic. On the one hand, it strove to raise the birth rate, especially in relation to the very low fertility in the western parts of the state, but on the other it promoted migration to solve the problem of unemployment. After the break up of Czechoslovakia and the formation of the Slovak state, various measures were introduced with the aim of increasing the population. However, these were not intended for the Jewish and Roma populations, which were subjected to racial persecution by law.
Key words: Population policy. Ideas on population. Demographic development. Slovakia. First half of the 20th century.
Reakcie slovenskej kultúrnej obce na sovietsku kampaň proti tzv. formalizmu v umení medzi rokmi 1936 – 1938
(Reactions of the slovak cultural community to the soviet campaign against so called formalism in the arts between the years 1936 and 1938)
The study focuses on the reactions of the Slovak cultural community to the Soviet campaign against so-called formalism in the arts between the years 1936 and 1938. The paper analyses public reactions to the fabricated political trials and the subsequent persecutions and wide-ranging arrests of Soviet artists and intellectuals in the Slovak cultural journals. While the discussions among communist and Ľudák intellectuals about Stalin´s terror in the thirties have been the subjects of several historical studies, the opinions of Slovak liberal and democratic writers and intellectuals are barely known. Many of these writers shared communist ideas about the liberalization and democratization of the Soviet Union, although this cannot be completely generalized and depends on specific authors. The study wants to emphasize that the illusions and unrealistic ideas remained among them during the whole period of the thirties and also after the Second World War during the last part of the Stalin epoch.
Key words: Campaign against formalism. Soviet Union. André Gide. Slovak artists and intellectuals. Cultural journals.
POLÁČKOVÁ Zuzana – VAN DUIN C. Pieter
Authoritarianism in crisis: Portugal, Czechoslovakia, and ‘1968’
(Authoritarianism in crisis: Portugal, Czechoslovakia, and ‘1968’)
This article makes a comparative analysis of political developments in Portugal and Czechoslovakia during the 1960s and early 1970s, focusing on the historic year ‘1968’ and its preconditions. The two countries experienced authoritarian regimes that went through a crisis of both a systemic and a moral kind, reaching a climax in 1968. In Czechoslovakia the liberalization policy of Alexander Dubček and his reform-communist coalition triggered spontaneous political and cultural activities among the population, which became a threat to the system of one-party rule. The Warsaw Pact invasion in August 1968 put an end to this experiment and the illusion of reform communism. The analysis of the causes, contradictions, and failure of liberalization remains a challenging subject for contemporary historians. Comparing the Czechoslovak experience with the evolution of the right-wing dictatorship in Portugal during the same period, may help to deepen our understanding of the nature and limits of authoritarianism in Europe. In Portugal the protracted regime of António Salazar came to an end in the same year 1968 after a series of manifestations of political crisis in the 1960s had shown its weaknesses and the inevitability of reform. However, his successor Marcelo Caetano maintained the regime’s authoritarian core and only carried out some cosmetic changes to keep Portugal with its colonies afloat. The Portuguese had to wait until 1974 for the regime to collapse, a short period of time, however, compared with the twenty-one more years that the Czechs and Slovaks had to wait. The extent of political space for opposition activity and the nature of elite disunity are among the critical questions examined in this article, which makes a comparison of Portugal and Czechoslovakia a challenging endeavour.
Key terms: Authoritarian regimes. Portugal. Czechoslovakia. Political crisis. Democratization.
*MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS‘
(The Slovak Autonomist Youth against Czechoslovak Unity)
The Czechoslovak Republic was constructed as the nation state of the “Czechoslovak nation”. This was expressed on the ideological level by promotion of the theory of so-called Czechoslovakism. In spite of its vague formulation, it contributed to the Slovaks not being recognized as a nation in the Czechoslovak Republic. This was opposed by the autono-mist camp, which had the political aims of gaining recognition of the Slovaks as a nation and obtaining political autonomy for Slovakia. The failure of the autonomists to achieve their aims led to the radicalization of their movement in the 1930s. Activation of the younger generation significantly contributed to this. The statements of its representatives on the idea of Czechoslovak unity were substantially sharper. In contrast to the older generation, the autonomist youth already unambiguously declared that they did not regard Slovak autonomy as the final aim of their movement. They did not hesitate to cast doubt on the shared Czechoslovak statehood. Their absolute rejection of Czechoslovak unity, also on the level of Czechoslovak statehood can be considered the most significant difference in the generation gap among the autonomists in relation to the ideological conception of Czechoslovakism.
Key words: Czechoslovakia. Autonomism. Czechoslovakism. Nation. Youth.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
DUCHOŇ O V Á Diana, Palatín Mikuláš Esterházy. Dvorská spoločnosť a aristokratická každodennosť (Viliam Čičaj) S. 173
KUDLÁČOVÁ Blanka (ed.), Pedagogické myslenie, školstvo a vzdelávanie na Slovensku v rokoch 1918 – 1945 (Michal Šimáně) S. 175
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK
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