OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Frank Ankersmit: Naratívna logika a historická reprezentácia
(Frank Ankersmit: Narrative Logic and Historical Representation)
The author of this article deals with Frank Ankersmit’s constructive understanding of the nature of historical narrative. He introduces Ankersmit’s analysis of the process of the construction of historical narration in his first book, Narrative Logic (1983), where Ankersmit makes a distinction between the phase of historical research and the phase of historical writing. According to Ankersmit, historical writing is connected with the application of narrative substances (“colligatory concepts”), which are related to sentences of historical narrative, but not related to historical reality. The idea of narrative substances plays a crucial role in his understanding of historical narrative as historical representation, which is considered a postmodern theory of historical writing. The author of the article also points to the relevance of the criticism of Ankersmit’s holistic understanding of the nature of historical narrative, which stresses the indetermination of the meaning of facts.
Key words: Historical narration. Writing about history. Narrative substance. Historical representation.
Lao c´, zakladateľ čínskeho taoizmu, vo svetle novoodhalených historických súvislostí
(Laozi, founder of Classical Chinese Taoism in the light of newly discovered historical documents)
Since the authorship and origin of the most frequently translated Chinese philosophical work Dao De jing is still doubted by many historians of philosophy, not only in the West, but also in China, this study analyses not only all the previously known historical sources, but also texts connected with the work of Laozi newly discovered by Chinese archaeological research. On the basis of this, and on the basis of field research in specific places connected with the life of the Old Master (Laozi), who wrote this important work for the history of world philosophy, the author reconstructs the real facts of the philosopher’s life in the second half of the 6th century BC, and the reasons why his work was unknown in official philosophical circles in China until the end of the 3rd century BC. Shedding new light on these still often misinterpreted facts, is important because the philosophical views contained in the Dao De jing are becoming an ever more topical inspiration, not only for Chinese, but for global post-modern philosophy.
Key words: Historical conditions of the creation Taoist philosophy. Its founder Laozi. The newly discovered copies of his work from Guodian and Mawangdui. Louguantai, the place of origin of the Dao De jing.
Kultúrno-duchovné a politické prostredie Bratislavy v dobe Mateja Korvína
(The cultural, spiritual and political environment of Bratislava in the period of Matthias Corvinus)
The period of King Matthias Corvinus Hunyady (1458 – 1490) is characterized by general stabilization of the country and by the penetration of Italian Renaissance and humanist influence into Hungary. Bratislava was a frequent residence of the king, who conducted military campaigns from there against Bohemia and Austria. Corvinus’ reforms had great influence on the everyday life of the inhabitants. The study gives a comprehensive overview of Bratislava in this period. A favourable spiritual environment was created in the city by the Chapter, which included important domestic and foreign personalities. A scriptorium existed in the city, and the activity of the first printer in the territory of Slovakia – Andrew (1476 – 1480) – has recently been confirmed. Much information is also given about the “Istropolitan” University (1465/67 – 1490), in the background of which stood members of the Dominican order. The connection of King Matthias and his wife with the city is also considered. The king was in close contact with the Bratislava city council, and they solved various problems together. The royal palace became a place for the formation of a new Renaissance life style and court etiquette.
Key words: King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and his wife Beatrice of Aragon. Bratislava. Chapter. Istropolitan University. First printer. Royal palace. Renaissance and humanism. King and city council.
TÓZSA RIGÓ Attila
„Ausgeben – eingenomen… die Stat […] notturffigklich versehn” Rozpočet mesta Bratislavy v druhej štvrtine 16. storočia
(„Ausgeben – eingenomen… die Stat […] notturffigklich versehn”. The budget of the city of Bratislava in the second quarter of the 16th century)
The study offers a look at the budget of the city of Bratislava in the first half of the 16th century on the basis of records from two financial years – 1528-29 and 1540-41 – which give detailed information on the income and spending of the city. These two years provide a very good illustration of the economic duties of one of the most important cities in the Kingdom of Hungary, and of the new challenges as a result of the drastic changes in the situation in the country, with which the city authorities and citizens had to deal. The importance of this city is increased by the fact that it was precisely in this period that it became the administrative centre for the part of the Kingdom of Hungary, that came under the rule of the Habsburg government. In this period of about ten years, it is possible to trace very clearly the central impact of developments in the whole state on the budget of the city. By means of analysing the “replies” to the appeals in the given period (raising of expenditure), it is possible to obtain a picture of the economic potential of the Bratislava burghers.
Key words: History of the Kingdom of Hungary. History of cities – Bratislava. Budgetary policy of the city in the early modern period. Everyday life in cities.
Československá národnodemokratická strana v politike Slovenskej národnej strany v rokoch 1919 – 1932
(The Czechoslovak National Democratic Party in the politics of the Slovak National Party, 1919 – 1932)
In inter-war Czechoslovakia, the relations of the Slovaks to Czech politics acquired a qualitatively new level. The autonomist Slovak National party (Sloven-ská národná strana) was an example. In the period 1919 – 1932, the Czechoslovak National Democratic Party (Československá národnodemokratická strana) played the part of a potential ally in its politics. In questions of programme, they both declared the need to define Slovakia as a territorial unit, that is a demand for autonomy and the need to solve the Slovak question. They were divided by their attitude to the national identity of the Slovaks. The Slovak party spoke of the separate national identity of the Slovaks, while the Czech party supported Czechoslovak national unity. Their attempts to cooperate culminated in their joint participation in the 1929 parliamentary elections, and the participation of the Slovak National Party members in the parliamentary group of the Czech part, which broke up in 1932 as a result of deepening disputes.
Key words: Slovak National Party. Czechoslovak National Democratic Party. Nationalism. Czechoslovak community. Czechoslovak national unity. Slovak autonomy. Separate identity of the Slovaks. Cooperation between Czech and Slovak political groups.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
SORBY ml. Karol
Počiatky modernej irackej štátnosti (1918 – 1922)
(The Beginnings of Modern Iraqi Statehood, 1918 – 1922)
In the valley of the Tigris-Euphrates, at the end of World War I, the British occupied Basra, Baghdad and Mosul, which had been the seats of three separate Ottoman provinces. There was great uncertainty over the future. When the news from San Remo arrived, a rebellion burst out. For four months in 1920, war raged in Iraq, with resistance forces encouraged by the Shiite mujtahids and led by tribal shaykhs in control of the Euphrates region, as well as attacks in some areas north and east of Baghdad. The large cities and the Kurdish areas for the most part did not play a role in the fighting. The British selected Faysal, ex-king of Syria, as king of Iraq. After a referendum was held, Faysal was enthroned on 23 August 1921. The British provided Faysal, a king without a kingdom, to Iraq, a kingdom without a king. In 1922 the first Anglo-Iraqi treaty was signed giving the British military and economic control over Iraq. British advisers were accepted in all offices. The treaty meant subjection and colonization and justified the objections by the nationalists.
Key words: History. Iraq. The Beginnings of Modern Iraqi Statehood, 1918 – 1922.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Príspevok k dejinám huty v Železnej Breznici
(A contribution to the history of metal production at Železná Breznica)
The study sheds light on the problem of the establishment of a new foundry for processing precious metal ores and heavy mineral concentrates at Železná Breznica in 1752. It is based on documents from the Archive of the Court Office in Vienna, which have not been considered in expert literature up to now. An iron foundry operated at Železná Breznica from the 15th century to the end of the 17th century. As a result of shortage of wood and charcoal around the old foundries, new foundries were built from the beginning of the 18th century in areas with better and more easily available supplies of charcoal. Therefore, in 1751, the chief inspector of economic and forestry matters at the office of the count of the chamber in Banská Štiavnica, Imrich Rust proposed the construction of a new foundry for processing precious metal ores in Železná Breznica. The proposal was approved by the Court Chamber in Vienna on 18 January 1752. The construction of the foundry cost 8 333 gulden.
Key words: History of metal production. 18th century. Slovak mining district – Železná Breznica.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
DUBOSKÝ Peter, Hezekiah and the Assyrian Spies. Reconstruction of the Neo-Assyrian Intelligence Services and its Significance for 2 Kings 18-19. (Ezechiáš a asýrski špióni. Rekonštrukcia novoasýrskych výzvedných služieb a jej význam pre 2. knihu kráľov 18-19.) Biblica et Orientalia 49. (Helena Panczová) S. 139
Magnae Moraviae fontes historici. Prameny k dějinám Velké Moravy. I. Annales et chronicae. Curaverunt Dagmar Bartoňková, † Lubomír Havlík, Zdeněk Masařík, Radoslav Večerka. (Lubomíra Havlíková) S. 142
MAREK Miloš, Cudzie etniká na stredovekom Slovensku (Ján Lukačka) S. 144
DANIŠ Vladimír, Začiatky Slovenskej ľudovej strany (Roman Holec) S. 146
KAMENEC Ivan - HLAVINKA Ján, Spory o biskupa Vojtaššáka. Politické a spoločenské aktivity Jána Vojtaššáka v rokoch 1938 – 1945 (Eduard Nižňanský) S. 150
DAVIES Norman, God`s Playground. A History of Poland. Vol. 1. The Origins to 1795; Vol. 2. 1795 to the present (Nina Paulovičová) S. 153.
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK
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