OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Formovanie osídlenia drevorubačských a uhliarskych osád na území mesta Banská Bystrica
(Formation of the timber and charcoal producing settlements in the territory of the town of Banská Bystrica)
The study is concerned with the problem of the origin of the timber and charcoal producing settlements in the historic territory of the town of Banská Bystrica. The introduction outlines the origin of the mining and metal producing settlements, with the existence of which timber and charcoal production was connected. The specialized timber and charcoal settlements were younger. The oldest developed from originally metal producing settlements. The origin of the first settlements inhabited exclusively by timber and charcoal producers falls in the 17th century. The study traces the whole process of development of this specific type of settlement from their origin to the mid 19th century.
Key words: Mining. Metal production. Timber producers. Charcoal producers. Settlements.
Sen o svobodě. Demokracie a republikánství ve Španělsku, 1840 – 1868
(A dream of freedom. Democracy and republicanism in Spain 1840 – 1868)
This article is concerned with the political discourse of the Spanish republicans from around 1840, when republicanism appeared on the scene, until 1868, when the majority of liberal political forces combined to overthrow the monarchy of Isabella II. The republicans spread their discourse by means of the press and in the framework of the space for social life, including educational societies, clubs and secret associations. They turned to the ordinary people, who were denied political rights by the doctrinaire liberal regime, and presented to them the ideal of a harmonious society composed of independent citizens. Exclusion from political life was understood as the main cause of social differences, and it was assumed that the right to vote would solve all types of inequality. The republicans succeeded in creating a movement of considerable breadth in geographical and social terms. It is possible to say that apart from its electoral results, republicanism was a key factor in politicizing the masses and bringing them into public life. Analysis of the discourse concentrates on key concepts such as democracy, citizenship, freedom and federalism, always bearing in mind, that the same terms may imply different conceptions of the principles, which symbolically structure society, in different historical periods. Concrete analysis of the discourse shows that the republicans had difficulty accepting pluralism and supporting among their popular base legal and institutional forms of participation in public life. The right to vote was seen more as a way of achieving social solidarity, than as an instrument of political change. The republicans also did not accept the legitimacy of the coexistence of different political projects, but considered that there was only one – that of the people. These concepts deeply influenced political events and practices in that period. The majority of Spanish liberals only slowly began to accept the rules of the game of the representative system and to install structures of consensus and integration of different political currents. This has basic importance for understanding the history of democracy in Spain.
Key words: Spain. Republicanism. Democracy. Citizenship. Federalism.
Negácia udalostnej histórie a historický optimizmus: historická ideológia Svetozára Hurbana Vajanského (1881 – 1897)
(The negation of event history and historical optimism: the historical ideology of Svetozár Hurban Vajanský (1881 – 1897)
By analysing selected texts by S.H. Vajanský from the period 1881 – 1897, the author points to his conception of history, in the context of his national ideology and conception of the policy of the Slovak National Party (Slovenská národná strana) at the end of the 19th century. Vajanský’s historical argumentation rests on two different but inter-connected interpretations of national history. The first starts from the concept of the Slovak nobility as an elite group in the society of the Kingdom of Hungary, the only group able to represent the mass of the nation. However, instead of this, it voluntarily “broke its connection with its people”, which is the cause of national poverty. Vajanský, however, did not find any cause for pessimism, but for optimism, thanks to the fact that the role of representing the mass of the nation had been taken up by the national intelligentsia. On this basis, he constructed a second interpretation of national history based on their negation. According to him, the Slovak people remembered “prehistoric times”, but remained untouched by “historic times”, which, in the interpretation of the author, meant event or political history. The negation of event history led to historical optimism – the Slovak nation still had its history in front of it.
Key words: History of national ideology. Ideology of the Slovak National party 1881 – 1897.Svetozár Hurban Vajanský. History as ideological argument (historical ideology).
Plány slovenskej autonómie v politike Maďarska 1918 – 1920
(Plans for Slovak autonomy in Hungarian politics 1918 – 1920)
The study is devoted to the plans of the former Hungarian political elites for the inclusion of „new born“ Slovakia in Hungary. Several such plans arose immediately in the period 1918 – 1920, when the „Slovak question“ was regarded primarily as a solvable task on the way to renewal of the integrity of the historic Hungarian state. This fact was also reflected in the activities of the Budapest government circles, which established their own irredentist organizations and supported movements, which tried to undermine the idea of Czecho-Slovak statehood. Especially the groups of emigrants, who had voluntarily or involuntarily left the territory of the emerging Czechoslovak Republic, became substantially engaged in this direction.
Key words: History of Slovakia 1918 – 1920. Autonomy. Trianon. Hungarian foreign policy. Irredentism. Revisionism. František Jehlička. Andrej Hlinka. Viktor Dvorčák. Slovak – Hungarian relations.
Príbeh slovenského intelektuála ako spolutvorcu, nástroj i obeť autoritatívneho režimu vojnového Slovenského štátu
(The Slovak intellectual as co-creator, instrument and victim of the authoritarian regime of the wartime Slovak state)
The study analyses an interesting problem from the point of view of knowledge of the position and direct political engagement of the Slovak cultural elites not only in general, but especially in the conditions of the authoritarian regime of the Slovak Republic of 1939 –1945. The author does not perceive the cultural-historical reflection of this phenomenon in isolation in the relatively short period of modern Slovak history, but in continuity with the development of the post-revolution period of the First Czechoslovak Republic (1918 – 1939), that is from the period of the establishment of the modern Slovak nation. She also expresses a view on the unteachable repetition of this phenomenon in the subsequent post-war totalitarian communist regime. She also observes that this phenomenon, namely the direct entry of the cultural elites into politics, is characteristic especially of undemocratic or totalitarian regimes, where it usually acquires negative features, by which the participants are placed in insoluble intellectual and moral dilemmas. This usually marks not only their creative work, but also their destiny in life. This gives the problem not only a historiographic character, but also a timeless dimension.
Key words: Modern Slovak culture. The post-revolution Slovak intelligentsia and its generation starting point. The collision of culture with authoritarian power. The Slovak
intellectual as Homo politicus. Intellectual failure?
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Dedina – ves – selo – derevňa v nárečiach starých Slovanov
(Dedina, ves, selo, derevňa in the dialects of the early Slavs)
Research into historical linguistics and dialectology have long been and will always remain a part and means of national identification, especially when the search for national identity has support in the natural, uncontrolled development of language, and when it respects past experience. Semantic analysis of the vocabulary in the dialects of particular Slavonic languages, based on comprehensive regional analysis, as in the Slavic Linguistic Atlas project, testifies to the differentiating as well as integrative features of the examined items in relation to the surrounding linguistic environment. Using several illustrative examples, such as dedina (village), strom (tree), hora (forest), the author points out the constants that are permanent identifying features of the Slovak language, and have become constituent parts of contemporary standard Slovak, in the course of natural development from a supra-dialect sphere in the pre-standard period.
Key words: Slavonic studies. Natural development of the language. Areal linguistics. Etymology of the words dedina – ves – selo – derevňa (= village).
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
KOSZTA László, Benediktínsky kláštor z 11. storočia na Spiši?
(A Benedictine monastery in 11th century in Spiš?)
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
HAHN Hans Henning - MANNOVÁ Elena (eds.), Nationale Wahrnehmungen und ihre Stereotypisierung (Peter Šoltés) S. 357
FATA Márta - KURUCZ Gyula - SCHINDLING Anton (eds.), Peregrinatio Hungarica (Eva Kowalská) S. 360
SUŠKO Ladislav (ed.), Das Deutsche Reich und die Slowakische Republik 1938 – 1945. Dokumente. Band I. (Dagmar Čierna-Lantayová) S. 362
SLOBODNÍK Martin, Mao a Buddha: Náboženská politika voči tibetskému buddhizmu v Číne (Marína Zavacká) S. 365
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK