OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
K pokusu o erigovanie biskupstva na Spiši v polovici 14. storočia
(On an attempt to create a Bishopric of Spiš in the mid 14th century)
The provostry of Spiš, together with two other provostries, those of Bratislava and Sibin (Sibiu in Transylvania), had a special position in the ecclesiastical administration of the Kingdom of Hungary. These three ecclesiastical institutions practically represented a level between a bishopric and an arch-deaconry. They held quasi-episcopal powers. All three ecclesiastical structures served frontier regions containing a numerical predominance of German “guest“ inhabitants. However, the provostry of Spiš also showed some differences from the other two provostries. There are various documents, which show that Spiš was one of the territories of the state, where a member of the royal family ruled for longer or shorter periods. Probably this is where we should seek the reasons for the attempt to change the provostry of Spiš with its quasi-episcopal powers into a regular bishopric of Spiš. The attempt to establish the bishopric by King Louis I and his mother Elizabeth is supported by a document in the form of a papal letter, which, appealing to a royal suplica from 1348, orders selected Hungarian ecclesiastical dignitaries to investigate the request. Although there was not a positive reply to the request and the attempt was not successful, the whole case represents a notable example of the functioning of cooperation between the monarch, the Hungarian Church and Papal Curia in questions of ecclesiastical administration in the 14th century.
Arch-deaconry. Provostry. Bishopric. Suplica. Erection. Lower beneficium.
„Vlasť v malom” Korunovačné slávnosti v období dualizmu a symbolika korunovačného vŕšku
(“The homeland in miniature”. (The coronation celebrations in the period of Dualism and the symbolic coronation hill))
The study analyses the development and functioning of political rituals and myths from the time of the two coronation ceremonies of the period of dualism: those of 1867 and 1916. A coronation was a splendid opportunity for the application of a whole range of political symbols. The study is mainly concerned with the ceremonies associated with the coronation hill, and in this contexts considers various aspects of cultural memory and political identities. In 1867 and again in 1916, all the municipia, that is counties and cities, were asked to send earth for the coronation hill from “historically important” places. The hill was intended to symbolize the unity and extent of the state. It also had to legitimize the new situation created by the Ausgleich. The hill was supposed to summarize the whole of Hungarian history and to symbolically unite the past with the present.
Austria-Hungary. Coronations of 1867 and 1916. Coronation hill. Historical myths.Political rituals and symbols. Cultural memory. Political identities.
Nobilitace Karla I. (IV.) ve světle materiálů jeho kabinetní kanceláře
(Granting noble status by Karl I (IV) in the light of materials from his cabinet office)
The reign of Karl I (IV) was a period of disintegration in the history of Austria-Hungary. After the death of Franz Joseph I, the situation in the Habsburg Monarchy became ever more complicated and not only in the field of foreign policy. The internal crisis of the empire also deepened. The monarch, whose position in the Kingdom of Hungary was significantly weakening, attempted during his reign, to shape a united elite of the monarchy, a nobility, which would be loyal to the ruling house in future generations. The exclusive right to grant decorations, titles and orders gave the monarch the possibility to support pro-Habsburg oriented circles in the individual crown lands and reward their patriotism. Karl I (IV) continued the policy of Franz Joseph and in the course of the 24 months of his reign, he granted some degree of noble status to more than a 1000 people. A large part of the materials revealing the background to his decisions is deposited in the archive of the former cabinet office in Vienna.
Karl I (IV). Austria-Hungary. Granting of noble titles. Evidence of ennoblement.Cabinet office.
Zásobovanie obyvateľstva ako administratívny, ekonomický, sociálny a politický problém Úradu ministra s plnou mocou pre správu Slovenska po vzniku Československej republiky (Supplying the population as an administrative, economic, social and political problem of the Office of the Minister with Full Power to Administer Slovakia after the origin of the Czechoslovak Republic)
The subject of the study is public supply in the first years after the origin of the Czechoslovak Republic directed by the government, organized by the ministries and performed by an extensive network of bodies. The author clarifies the problems of supply in Slovakia, which had to be solved by the Office of the Minister with Full Power to Administer Slovakia, during the complex process of the incorporation of the country into the new state. She emphasizes the importance of this activity, which secured the basic necessities of life for the population, energy and raw materials for the productive sphere and the functioning of domestic and foreign trade. It had significant influence on social tension and its possible political results.
Czechoslovak Republic. Incorporation of Slovakia (1918 – 1920). Office of the Minister with Full Power to Administer Slovakia. Supply. Organization. Directed economy.
Zabudnutí aktivisti. Príspevok k dejinám maďarských politických strán v medzivojnovom období
(Forgotten activists. A contribution to the history of Hungarian political parties in the inter-war period)
The study is concerned with the history of Hungarian politics in Czechoslovakia between the two wars. Hungarian activism, which was not researched up to now, is in the centre of the author’s attention. On the basis of previously unpublished archive sources, the author offers a basic review of pro-government political activity among the Hungarians. He concerns himself with individual orientations of activism and with leading personalities in it. In the conclusion, he offers an overall assessment of Hungarian activism and analyses the causes of its failure.
Hungarian minority. First Czechoslovak Republic. Activism. Nationality politics.Political parties.
Bezpečnostní strategie USA v letech 1945 – 1947
(The security strategy of the USA in the period 1945 – 1947)
The study considers the security strategy of the USA in the period 1945 – 1947, which was very important for the formation of the post-war international order and had very serious results for the states of Central and Eastern Europe, including Czechoslovakia. The study is especially directed towards key documents of the Truman administration concerned with preparations for nuclear war against the USSR. These contributed to the establishment of a firm confrontational course, which finally ensured that Czechoslovakia and other countries in this region were transferred from an open sphere of Soviet influence to an exclusive sphere with all the negative consequences associated with this.
Open sphere of influence. Exclusive sphere of influence. Confrontation. Nuclear planning. Strategy of containment. Truman doctrine. Marshall Plan.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
GULYÁS László – TÓTH István
Maďarská percepcia prvého stredoeurópskeho plánu Milana Hodžu
(The security strategy of the USA in the period 1945 – 1947)
Czechoslovakia (1918 – 1993) and its leading politicians played an important role in the 20th century history of Central Europe. In our paper we analyse the first plan of Milan Hodža, one of the most important Slovak politicians of the first Czechoslovak state (1918 – 1939) concerning Central Europe. Hodža, as prime minister, published his plan named after him in January 1936, and it initiated the economic cooperation of the Danubian states. We present the Hungarian and international reactions to the Hodža-plan and its quick failure, mainly on the basis of Hungarian documents. We conclude that the reason for its failure was that it was not in the interest of any country except Czechoslovakia.
History of Central Europe. Hungarian-Czechoslovak relationship. Milan Hodža.
Informovanosť česko-slovenskej diplomacie o kontaktoch slovenských autonomistických politikov s nacistami v období pomníchovskej republiky
(The informedness of Czecho-Slovak diplomacy about the contacts of the Slovak autonomist politicians with the Nazis in the period of the post-Munich republic)
The study is concerned with the problem of what information Czecho-Slovak diplomacy had about Slovak – German relations in the period of the so-called Second Republic. The author analyses its sources of information, which included the official statements of the German Foreign Office (Auswärtiges Amt), reports from the Czecho-Slovak Embassy in Berlin, reports of the Czecho-Slovak intelligence service to the Foreign Ministry in Prague and the domestic and foreign press. She comes to the conclusion that Czecho-Slovak diplomacy under-estimated the role of Slovak separatism in Nazi policy and only had very superficial knowledge of the contacts of Slovak political figures with the Nazis.
International relations. Diplomacy. Second Czecho-Slovak Republic. Nazi Germany. Slovak autonomism.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
BYSTRICKÝ Valerián – LETZ Róbert – PODOLEC Ondrej (zost.), Vznik Slovenského štátu 14. marec 1939 (Július Bartl) S. 593
SORBY Karol R., Blízky východ v medzinárodnej politike 1918 – 1945 (Pavol Petruf) S. 596
Hledání jistoty v bouřlivých časech (Dagmar Čierna-Lantayová) S. 598
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK