OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Kronika Ulricha Richentala ako výnimočný prameň k dejinám Slovenska
(The Chronicle of Ulrich Richental as an Exceptional Source for the History of Slovakia)
The study is devoted to the Chronicle of the Council of Konstanz by Ulrich Richental, in which he described the events of the Church council of 1414 – 1418. The chronicle is also known from the point of view of Slovak history in relation to its mentions of the territory of Slovakia, which prove that in the 15th century, the territory of Slovakia was perceived as special and ethnically different in the framework of the Kingdom of Hungary. In several places, Richental mentions noblemen, whose property was located in the territory of present-day Slovakia as lords “in Windischen länden”. A closer geographical location, such as on the river Váh, is sometimes given. In Richental’s Chronicle, apart from the name “Hungary”, also called in one place “Ungerland”, we also find Slovakia designated as “Windenland”. Richental’s mentions of Slovakia are very valuable, but so far more or less unknown in expert literature
Council of Konstanz. Sigismund of Luxembourg. Ulrich Richental. Slovakia. Slovaks. Nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary.
NÉMETH H. István
Európska doktrína alebo uhorská špecialita? Zásahy štátu a rekatolizácia miest v Uhorsku v priebehu 17. storočia
(European Doctrine or Hungarian Speciality? State Interventions and the Re-Catholicization of Towns in Hungary in the Course of the 17th Century)
The study presents the results of new research on the relationship between the towns and the monarch or the state in the period of re-Catholicization, especially in the second half of the 17th century. At the parliament of 1604, the Hungarian Estates already protested against the Rudolfine Counter Reformation and there was also strong opposition in the free royal boroughs. The argumentation was based on the statement that according to Hungarian general law, the towns “do not belong to the king but to the crown”. At first, re-Catholicization efforts were hindered by a lack of qualified, educated and propertied Catholics, who could hold office in the towns. There was a similar problem with appointment of parish priests in the towns. The author corrects the familiar statements, especially of older historiography, which identified the Reformation with the national party and the Catholic side with the Habsburgs, the Vienna court and the Hungarian Catholic “anti-nationally” oriented nobility, and points to the complexity of the problem, and to the fact that the economic decline of the early modern towns is not a logical result of the weakened authority of town administrations, but of a whole complex of influences.
Kingdom of Hungary. 17th century. Re-Catholicization. Towns. Elections.
Pracovné, sociálne a kultúrne podmienky slovenských robotníkov v Nemeckej ríši v rokoch 1939 – 1945
(The Working, Social and Cultural Conditions of Slovak Workers in the German Reich, 1939 – 1945)
The author devotes attention to the question of the migration of Slovak industrial and agricultural workers to work in Germany in the period 1939 – 1945. This was associated with the economic connection between the two countries. It simultaneously solved the problems of shortage of workers in Germany and long-term unemployment in Slovakia. On the basis of an agreement from 8 December 1939 on the provision of Slovak workers to the Third Reich, workers went to Germany for permanent or seasonal work. We can assess the migration of workers to Germany from two points of view. On one side, we must state that the employment of Slovak workers in the “Third Reich” occurred on a voluntary basis and after the conclusion of a normal employment contract. The main motivating factor was the availability of a good income to support the family at home in Slovakia. The employment of workers abroad succeeded in reducing unemployment – a long-term problem of the Slovak economy. On the other side, from the point of view of the state, the employment of workers in Germany was an economic burden, because the workers had to be paid by the *SNB form, a clearing method of payment disadvantageous to Slovakia. In this system of payments, Slovakia gained high unpaid claims against Germany, which placed a heavy burden on the state treasury.
Slovak Republic (1939 – 1945). Nazi Germany. Unemployment. Slovak economy. Clearing payment system.
Všeobecnosť antisemitizmu a jedinečnosť holokaustu: príklad Slovenska
(The Universality of Anti-Semitism and the Uniqueness of the Holocaust: Slovakia as a Case Study)
While anti-Semitism is usually perceived as a universal phenomena, the Holocaust is often viewed as a unique and unprecedented event. However, when it comes to explaining the Holocaust, reference to anti-Semitism seems to be the only answer, the sole factor that led to the tragedy. But if – in one or another form – anti-Semitism is a constant feature, what makes the Holocaust an unparalleled experience? The aim of this study is not to investigate the uniqueness or “historization” of the Holocaust, but rather to analyze the relation between anti-Semitism as a phenomena and the Holocaust as an event. The concerned relation is studied on the example of Slovakia, in the period between the formation of Slovak national consciousness and the end of the Second World War.
Anti-Semitism. Holocaust. Slovakia.
Transformácia Slovenskej akadémie vied v rokoch 1989 – 1993
(The Transformation of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in the period 1989 – 1993)
The study is devoted to the transformation of the Slovak Academy of Sciences as a result of the social changes after November 1989. The transformation is traced in three stages. The first stage, which lasted from November 1989 to the election of a new leadership of the Academy in January 1990, was very dynamic. Strike committees were formed and there were changes in the leadership of the Academy and its institutes. The changes culminated in the election of a new democratically elected body: the Council of Scientists of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. The second stage occurred during the term of office of the new democratically elected leadership of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (Predsedníctvo SAV) (1990 – May 1992). The coarsest deformations and injustices caused by the totalitarian regime were corrected, and the Academy developed a new character as a non-university academic institution. During the second leadership of the Academy (May 1992 – 1993), the transformation continued especially in the field of making scientific research more effective. The number of employees of the Academy was reduced by almost half, while scientific research was maintained on a good level. Apart from structural changes, the introduction of a grant system contributed to this. The transformation was largely completed in the period 1989-1993, and the Slovak Academy of Sciences was transformed into a democratically run, effective scientific institution, which carried out basic research and in some areas also targeted applied research.
History. Slovak Academy of Sciences. Transformation 1989 – 1993.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Maďari a Habsburská monarchia
(The Hungarians and the Habsburg Monarchy)
In this paper the author deals with the image of the Habsburg Monarchy in Hungary at the time of its existence as well as with the memory the society of today keeps of it. On the contrary to what is generally assumed, confrontation is not necessarily the main feature of this image. During its domination over Hungary, the Monarchy was felt alternatively as an oppressive power to which responded the “kuruc” tradition of opposition and as a partner to achieve superior goals to which responded the “labanc” tradition of collaboration. These patterns of political behaviour are still obvious today. The experience of the two totalitarianisms have brought a re-evaluation of the Habsburgs as benevolent sovereigns and even 1848 looks pale compared to 1956. Towards the end of the communist regime, the re-discovery of the Habsburg heritage went beyond the historical sciences and became after 1989 a topos of the touristic discourse.
History. Habsburg Monarchy. Relationships between the Hungarians and the Habsburgs in the 19th and the 20th Century.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
JANIN Valentin Lavrenťjevič, Středověký Novgorod v nápisech na březové kůře (Juraj Šedivý) S. 738
KÓNYA Peter, Za Boha, vlasť a slobodu! Pohnuté osudy kuruckého generála Juraja Ottlyka (Tomáš Janura) S. 740
BROKLOVÁ Eva – TOMEŠ Josef – PEHR Michal, Agrárníci, národní demokraté a lidovci ve druhém polčase první Československé republiky (Matej Hanula) S. 743
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK