OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Byzancia, Slovania a Avarský kaganát v období vlády cisára Foku (602 – 610)
(Byzantium, the Slavs and the Avar Khaganate in the reign of the Emperor Phocas (602-610))
The study is devoted to the controversial regime of the Byzantine Emperor Phocas (602-610), especially from the point of view of his foreign policy towards the Slavs and Avars. The author evaluates the contemporary and later sources and the latest archaeological evidence. Both types of evidence refute the frequently repeated view that the Byzantine defensive system on the Danube collapsed in the reign of this Emperor.
Byzantium. Emperor Phocas. Avars. Slavs.
Diplomat v službách uhorských kráľov. Pôsobenie nitrianskeho biskupa Antona zo Šankoviec na sklonku stredoveku
(A diplomat in the service of the Kings of Hungary. The activity of the Bishop of Nitra Antonius de Sankfalwa at the end of the Middle Ages)
The ecclesiastical dignitary Antonius de Sankfalwa (from Šankovce) started his diplomatic career as a canon at Oradea (Magnovaradinum, Nagyvárad, Veľké Varadín, Gross-Wardein). The king entrusted him with ever more demanding diplomatic tasks. Together with the Archbishop of Esztergom Vitéz, he secured the return of the Crown of St. Stephen to Hungary in 1463. He was also sent to the courts of Italian rulers and to France, Poland and Germany. In 1486, King Matthias Corvinus appointed him Provost of Bratislava, and in 1490 Vladislav II made him Bishop of Nitra. Antonius de Sankfalwa fully applied his education in canon law, gained at the University of Padua, in the field of marriage law. In Rome, he had to prove the invalidity of Vladislav’s marriage, not only with Beatrix of Aragon, but also with Barbara of Brandenburg. Evidence of Antonius’ activities survives from the period of his work in Bratislava and Nitra. He was involved in canon law, organizational and pastoral activities. He held a diocesan synod at Nitra in 1494. Its conclusions provide information about the problems of the Catholic Church at the end of the 15th century. He founded an altar of St. Antony in Nitra Cathedral and gave his house in Buda and vineyard on Zobor to support it. Bishop Antonius made his last diplomatic journey in 1499 to the Imperial Diet at Worms.
Middle Ages. Diplomacy. Provost of Bratislava. Bishop of Nitra. Matthias Corvinus. Beatrix of Aragon. Vladislav II Jagielo. Diocesan synod at Nitra.
Zápas slovenského a nemeckého finančného kapitálu o pozície v peňažníctve Slovenska 1939 – 1945
(The struggle between Slovak and German financial capital for positions in Slovak finance, 1939–1945)
One of the main aims of the government circles of the Slovak Republic of 1939–1945was control of the finance and business sphere by national Slovak capital. The pre-condition for implementing these plans was strengthening of the position of national Slovak banking by means of concentration of finance. However, the government program in finance and business struck against the plans of Nazi Germany for the expansion of its banks and companies into the industrial complex of Slovakia and the whole of Central Europe. One of the key conditions for achieving the aims of German capital was participation in the financial system of the individual countries by means of bank affiliations. The leading financial institutions of Slovakia came into a conflict of interests with the incomparably larger banking centres of Nazi Germany. German capital, represented by two affiliated banks in Bratislava, entered the process of concentration of finance, and applied economic and political pressure to strengthen their position in the Slovak financial sphere. There was some degree of compromise to demonstrate good will towards allies or vassals. Therefore, banking became one of the few economic fields, where the regime to some extent achieved its aim of nationalizing foreign capital. Slovakia. Germany. Nazism. Capital. Expansion. Banks. Concentration.
Blízky východ ako regionálne bojisko studenej vojny na začiatku šesťdesiatych rokov 20. storočia
(The Middle East as a regional battlefield of the Cold War at the beginning of the 1960s)
The Kennedy Administration came to power convinced that its predecessor had demonstrated an appalling lack of imagination in its attitude toward Third World nationalists like Jamal Abdel Nasser. Seen from the perspective of the New Frontier, the Eisenhower Administration’s reluctance to accept nonalignment in the Cold War had created widespread opportunities for the spread of Soviet influence in the developing world. Two weeks before Kennedy took office, Khrushchev had publicly endorsed “wars of national liberation” in the Third World. It seemed that the Soviets, by exploiting American inflexibility and by shrewdly distributing military and economic aid and political support to Third World nationalists, had secured a commanding position on what had become the critical battleground between East and West.
History. The Cold War in the Middle East in the Early 1960s.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Pôvod a vývoj šľachty a Zlatá bula z roku 1222
(The origin and development of the nobility and the Golden Bull of 1222)
On the basis of detailed interpretation of the usable contemporary sources, the author describes the social and ethnic origin of the Hungarian nobility, and its development as a social group from the 11th to the 13th centuries. Especially according to the provisions of the so-called Golden Bull from 1222, he comes to the conclusion that from the beginning of the 13th century, the nobility regarded military service as a burden, and they strove for a share of political influence in the Kingdom of Hungary. The nobility became the political elite of Hungarian society.
Kingdom of Hungary. Slovakia. History. Middle Ages. Nobility.
Miesto historickej vedy v dnešnej spoločnosti
(The place of the historical science in today’s society.
MORSEL, Joseph. L’HISTOIRE (DU MOYEN ÂGE) EST UN SPORT DE COMBAT. Réflexions sur les finalités de l’Histoire du Moyen Âge destinées à une société dans laquelle même les étudiants d’Histoire s’interrogent [THE HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE AGES IS
A MARTIAL ART. Reflections on the aims of Medieval history destined for a society in which even the students ask questions]. Paris I : Lamop, 2007, 196 pages. (online) http://lamop.univ-paris1.fr/W3/JosephMorsel/Sportdecombat.pdf)
The aim of the following contribution is to approach and discuss the work of J. Morsel, which provoked lively discussion in French historical circles immedia-tely after its publication in 2007. In his innovative essay, spread by the modern means of the Internet, Morsel attempts to answer a question, which is occupying an ever larger group of historians: that of the meaning, aims and roles of the historical science in today’s society. In comparison with the varying theories of Guerreau, Le Goff, Noiriel and other historians, the author uncovers individual layers of problems, which have piled up around historiography and the epistemo-logy of the historical science in recent years. In connection with the changes in today’s crisis afflicted society, he seeks a more acceptable alternative for the appropriate fulfillment of the essence of historical research. He attempts to reserve a place for the historian as a defender and guardian of the social values acquired through the centuries, and assigns him the role of mediator in communication with the broad lay public, often swamped by superficial and consumerist information.
Medieval history. Epistemology. Historian. Crisis and atomization of the historical discipline. Problems of organization of the academic world. Role of history and the demands of society. Role of history. Memory of society. Interdisciplinarity.
ARCHÍV / ARCHIVES
SCHVARC Michal – SCHRIFFL David
Vznik Slovenskej národnej banky a konštituovanie slovenskej meny vo svetle nemeckých dokumentov
(The origin of the Slovak National Bank and the establishment of the Slovak currency in the light of German documents)
German – Slovak relations in the period 1939–1945 did not exist only on the political level, but also to a significant degree in the economic sphere. Apart from political domination of Slovakia, the Nazis were especially concerned with the control and the quickest possible incorporation of the Slovak economy into the German economic organism, which had to be reshaped into the so-called great economic space (Großraumwirtschaft). A secret protocol about economic and financial cooperation concluded between representatives of the two states on 23 March 1939 in Berlin as a supplement to the “Treaty of Protection” became a launch pad for securing the dominance of German capital in Slovakia. Article II of the protocol concerned the establishment of a central bank and constituting the Slovak currency. The sources considered here present precisely this problem. The documents do not concern only the atmosphere of the talks, the share of Germany in the establishment of the central bank or the fears of the Slovak participants for their own future, they also document the pragmatism and purposefulness of the Nazi economic policy towards the “protected state”.
German – Slovak relations. Slovak National Bank. Reichbank. Slovak currency. German advisers.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
Poznámky k historickým otázkam v diele Ondreja R. Halagu. Východoslovenský slovník I. – II. Košice; Prešov : universum, 2002
(Comments on historical questions in the work of O. R. Halaga. Eastern Slovak Dictionary I-II)
Problém písania mien historických osobností z obdobia uhorských dejín
(The problem of writing the names of historical personalities from the time of the Kingdom of Hungary)
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
LENGYELOVÁ Tünde – VÁRKONYI Gábor, Báthory, život a smrť (Július Bartl) S. 138
TANCER Jozef, Im Schatten Wiens (Eva Kowalská) S. 142
KUCÍK Štefan (Ed.), Mýtus a realita (Roman Holec) S. 144
FERENČUHOVÁ Bohumila, Francúzsko a slovenská otázka 1789 – 1989 (Pavol Petruf) S. 146
SOKOLOVIČ Peter, Hlinkova garda 1938 – 1945 (Ivan Kamenec) S. 149
DELPARD Raphaël, Les convois de la honte (Lucia Galibert) S. 152
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK