OBSAH / CONTENTS
METODOLÓGIA / METHODOLOGY
ČERNÍK Václav – VICENÍK Jozef
K niektorým metodologickým otázkam historického poznania
(On some methodological questions of historical knowledge)
The essay is an analysis of selected methodological problems of historical knowledge. In the introduction, the authors consider existing disputes in the methodology of the historical sciences: naturalism and antinaturalism, nomothetism and ideographism, synchronism and diachronism. The authors seek a key to solution of these contradictions in overcoming the antihistorical conception of human nature or the essence of man, the structure of society and social science laws. They concentrate their attention on the analysis of the historical retrospective and historical genesis. They show that the unification of these two approaches enables a theoretical basis for historiography and establishment of the problem of integration of the nomological explanation and humanist interpretation. In another part of the work, they consider the nature of historical narrative. They distinguish the shaping of a story in art and in historiography, and they analyse the problem of the truth and meaning of historical narrative and its criteria.
Historical retrospective. Historical genesis. Historical narrative.
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Problematika včasného stredoveku na Slovensku
(The problem of the Early Middle Ages in Slovakia)
The period from the sixth to the beginning of the eleventh century is called the Early Middle Ages. The study evaluates the development of views on this period. There have been several stages in the development of views on the problem of the Early Middle Ages. The first extended from the beginning of the 19th century until after the origin of the first Czechoslovak Republic. The second stage lasted from the 1920s to the 1940s. Another stage began in February 1948 and ended in November 1989. The latter date was followed by the present stage.
The study presents a conception of the division of the older phase of the Early Middle Ages. It is defined by the beginning of the sixth and the end of the eighth centuries. It is divided into the Early Slavonic period from the beginning of the sixth to about the middle of the seventh century, and the period of the Avar Kaganate in the southern marginal zones of Slovakia, from about 650 to 800 AD. In the rest of the territory of Slovakia, development continued from the settlement by the Slavs to the time of the origin of the first supra-tribal units around the year 800. The study also presents views on the barrow method of burial and the change of funeral rite from cremation to inhumation. The authors suppose that our territory was not settled by one, unnamed Slavonic group. The Slavs in the territory of Slovakia were not so important and dangerous as the Slavonic tribes settled in the immediate vicinity of important power-political units, which recognized them as hostile groups and so named them.
Slovakia. Migration period. Early Middle Ages. Review of research.
Volebná kampaň ľudovej strany pred parlamentnými voľbami v 20. rokoch 20. storočia
(People’s Party campaigns for parliamentary elections in the 1920s)
Before every parliamentary election in the 1920s, the Slovak People’s Party had to struggle with different circumstances. In 1920 the program of the party was based on three ideological pillars: Christian, national and popular or social. In the first parliamentary elections, the party gained third place after the Social Democrats and Agrarians. The support of priests, who supported the Ľudáks played an important part. Voters also certainly decided according to confession. Before the 1925 elections, the party presented a thoroughly revised program for the autonomy of Slovakia. Hlinka’s Slovak People’s Party (HSĽS) won with a high number of votes. The active support of Catholic voters and criticism of the coalition certainly worked. Taking over the agenda of the Agrarian Party, meaning increased interest in the problem of land reform, could also bring good results for the Ľudáks. In the 1929 elections, HSĽS again triumphed, but with fewer votes than in 1925. The party had been damaged by the Tuka affair. The negative impact of the sudden move to the opposition camp and a certain political isolation caused by the Tuka affair replaced fear of the loss of votes in connection with the participation of HSĽS in government.
Slovak People’s Party. Hlinka’s Slovak People’s Party. First Czechoslovak Republic. Parliamentary elections.
Slovenská banka v rokoch 1930 – 1938. Čas tvrdých skúšok a sklamaní
(The Slovak Bank in the period 1930-1938. A time of harsh tests and disappointments)
The work analyses the business activity of the Slovak Bank in Bratislava in the period 1930-1938, a period in which it experienced a harsh test and screening of its business. The economic crisis of 1929-1933, which most afflicted the Slovak national banks, the Tatra Bank and Slovak Bank, interrupted the recovery process of the period 1925-1929. The losses of the Slovak Bank resulted especially from its participation in the management and financing of industrial and commercial companies. The Slovak bank rejected state assistance, mainly because of the excessively strict conditions. The bank undertook recovery from its own resources, which reduced them to little more than a third of their previous level. It more or less successfully manoeuvred in relation to the government and political circles during this period, and strove to maintain its independence. The top management of the Slovak Bank refused to merge with the Tatra Bank of Martin. In spite of shocks and losses, the Slovak Bank succeeded in stabilizing its position in the capital market at the end of the 1930s.
Czechoslovakia. Slovakia. Banks. Finance. Business. Industry. Trade. Ministry of Finance.Slovak Bank. Tatra Bank. Recovery. Merger.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Trianonské rituály alebo úvahy nad niektorými javmi v maďarskej historiografii
(Trianon rituals or considerations of some features of Hungarian historiography)
The study connected with the approaching anniversary of the conclusion of the Treaty of Trianon examines the instrumentalization of this event in part of Hungarian historiography. Biased arguments, the so-called national viewpoint, double standards for the same phenomena, absence of context, lack of perception of preceding developments, demonization of particular personalities and phenomena, uncritical argumentation from the 1910 nationality statistics, which used unreliable methods, accompany this instrumentalization. All this is only part of a rich repertoire. The study comments on the character of the most recent Trianon publications and generalizes about some common features of Hungarian historiography, especially the absence of self-reflection and problems with the analysis of their own historical failures, as well as the tendency of the main stream of Hungarian historiography to ignore these negative trends. They are tacitly accepted without comment or the necessary critical detachment, which gives the impression of agreement. There are more than enough similar negative phenomena in Slovakia, but here they evoke polemics and the majority of professional historians distance themselves from them. Only those, who can express their position and not be silent at home, have the right to look beyond the frontiers and express critical views of the situation in neighbouring countries.
Hungarian historiography. Trianon and its instrumentalization. Absence of self-reflection and distortion of history. Comparison with Slovak historiography.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Poznámky k sociální situaci v Kosovu v 60. a 70. letech 20. století
(Comments on the social situation in Kosovo in the 1960s and 1970s)
The article is devoted to the development of the social situation in Kosovo in the 1960s and 1970s. It points to the fact that Serbian, Albanian and international historiography has researched the recent history of Kosovo mainly from the point of view of the growth of ethnic tensions. However, clarification of the causes of the specific development of this region is not possible without impartial and comprehensive analysis of all areas of its social and economic life. The text presents findings mainly derived from official Yugoslav statistics, documents from the office of Josip Broz Tito and partial analysis of the Belgrade daily Politika from several years. The study includes the development of health care, infant mortality, the level of schooling, employment, pension and social security, consumption of food, position of women and the situation in the agrarian sector. The data are compared with the situation in more backward parts of the former Yugoslav federation, especially in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia. It is clear that from the about the first third of the 1960s, Kosovo began to fall seriously behind these economically under-developed republics.
Kosovo. Social and economic situation. Health care. Infant mortality. Extra-marital children. Polygamy. Employment. Agrarian sector. Backwardness. Stagnation.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
Ad: Dušan Kováč, Problém písania mien historických osobností z obdobia uhorských dejín
(Comment: Dušan Kováč: The problem of writing the names of historical personalities from time of the Kingdom of Hungary)
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
RYCHLÍK Jan a kol., Mezi Vídní a Cařihradem. 1. Utváření balkánských národů (Valerián Bystrický) S. 347
KOWALSKÁ Eva – KANTEK Karol, Uhorská rapsódia alebo tragický príbeh osvietenca Jozefa Hajnóczyho (Dušan Škvarna) S. 349
KOVÁČ Dušan a kol., Prvá svetová vojna 1914 – 1918 (Milan Zemko) S. 352
SEGEŠ Dušan, Dvojkríž v siločiarach Bieleho orla (Dagmar Čierna-Lantayová) S. 355
Monografie Historického ústavu SAV k 40. výročiu udalostí roka 1968 v Československu a na Slovensku (Ľudovít Hallon) S. 358
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK