OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Vznik a vývoj najstaršej zvolenskej šľachty
(The Origin and Development of the Oldest Nobility of Zvolen)
The author of the study is concerned with the beginnings, origin and development of the oldest nobility of Zvolen, which has previously received little attention from historical-genealogical research. The beginnings of the nobility in the oldest period were socially connected mainly with the hereditary ownership of land, so while researching its beginnings, the author directed her attention to researching the hereditary ownership of property by the nobility, which can be reconstructed from donation and other royal charters or from other documents. The author is only concerned with the initial period of this complex process, that is with the noblemen who owned property in the Zvolen region up to about 1400. The oldest documents confirm that a group of feudal lords existed in the Zvolen region from a very early date. Its first known representatives are the royal pristald Radun and his sons, who certainly owned land in this region at the beginning of the 13th century. They belonged to the higher nobility who were rewarded for their military service with numerous royal donations. According to the author’s research, Radun and his sons had a common origin with the Dubak family. According to the latest research, the Dubak family belonged to the wider kindred of the old Branč-Lipovnícky family. Around 1300 the descendants of Radun became the founders of the majority of families not only in the Zvolen region (Radvanský, Mičinský, Ponický), but also in Hont (Balog, Géci) and Novohrad (Madáč, Šóš).
History. Slovakia. Noble families. Zvolen. Early Medieval.
NÉMETH István H.
Vplyv osmanskej vojny na vývoj miest v Uhorsku a daňové zaťaženie slobodných kráľovských miest v Uhorsku v 16. a 17. storočí
(The Influence of the Ottoman Wars on the Development of Towns in the Kingdom of Hungary and the Tax Burden on the Royal Boroughs of Hungary in the 16th and 17th Centuries)
Monetary taxes formed the main part of the tax obligation of the royal boroughs of the Kingdom of Hungary up to the last third of the 16th century. Among them, the census was practically insignificant in amount and usually not paid in the 16th century. The lucrum camerae was a tax, which could only be levied by the Hungarian Parliament, although its level was decided by the Court Chamber. From the first decade of the 17th century, the taxes began to increase, the census was collected regularly and they tried to levy the lucrum camerae also in years when parliament did not meet. In the mid 17th century, taxa came to be paid every two and later every three years. After the Wesselényi Conspiracy (1670), a similar tax system to that applied in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy was introduced. Portia was a tax intended to support the army operating in the country, and its amount depended on the size of the army. Accisa was a consumption tax charged on meat and alcohol. Apart from this, the 16th – 17th century towns had to pay for the support of a certain number of soldiers, who served in nearby castles. They had to provide transport services and provide labour for the construction of fortifications. In the 16th century, it was not usual for the royal boroughs to fall behind with their tax payments. At the beginning of the 17th century, the tax system changed, European wars disturbed traditional market connections, the income of towns declined, and this meant a general decline in regularity of payments. Up to the end of the 17th century, every town struggled with high arrears in tax payments. The study traces the level of indebtedness in the case of the town of Trnava.
Early Modern Period. Royal boroughs in the Kingdom of Hungary. Indebtedness.
Podnikateľské aktivity Slovenskej banky v rokoch 1919 – 1929
(The Business Activities of the Slovenská banka in the Period 1919-1929)
The work analyses the business activities of the Slovenská banka in Bratislava. This bank built up its business organization, numerically the largest in the Slovak financial sector, after 1918. The main emphasis is on the business activities of the Slovenská banka in joint stock companies concerned with industry, trade, transport and finance from the founding euphoria of 1919-1921 through the bankruptcy of some companies during the post-war economic crisis to the consolidation in the boom years of 1926-1929. The Slovenská banka built up its business organization mainly in the years 1919-1921 with substantial help from the Živnostenská banka of Prague. It also gained shareholdings in various companies on the basis of fusion with the Hospodárska banka of Bratislava. In 1922, 45 companies were included in the sphere of influence of the Slovenská banka. However, their number and capital value were reduced by the economic crisis. From 1924 to 1929, the Slovenská banka devoted its efforts mainly to the recovery of its most important companies.
Czechoslovakia. Slovakia. Banks. Finance. Business. Nostrification. Industry.Trade. Companies. Slovenská banka. Živnostenská banka of Prague.
Volebný zákon do Poslaneckej snemovne Národného zhromaždenia za prvej Československej republiky a strany národnostných menšín
(The Law on Elections to the Lower House of the National Assembly of the First Czechoslovak Republic and the National Minority Parties)
The Constitution of the Czechoslovak Republic enacted a proportional electoral system for parliamentary elections, so that the composition of parliament would reflect the will of the voters, especially from the minority nationalities, as closely as possible. The introduction of this principle was partly a reaction to the electoral system and practice applied in both parts of the Habsburg Monarchy up to 1918. The election laws and their amendments concerning elections to both chambers of the National Assembly regulated this principle, so that it was applied to a large extent, although not perfectly, in all four elections to the Czechoslovak parliament from 1920 to 1935.
Czechoslovakia. Slovakia. Ethnic minority parties. Parliamentary elections.
Slovanské predstavy a politické variácie vo vzťahoch Slovákov k Moskve (1934 – 1949)
(Slavonic Ideas and Political Variations in the Relationship of the Slovaks to Moscow (1934 – 1949))
In the period 1934-1949, not only the real international situation, but to a large extent also political illusions were reflected in the relationship of the Slovaks to Russia. The alliance between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union in 1935 also had the support of Slovak members of the ruling circles in Prague. The orientation to Nazi Germany determined the foreign policy of the Slovak state from March 1939. The pact between Berlin and Moscow briefly opened the possibility of diplomatic relations between Slovakia and Russia. The entry of Slovakia to the anti-Soviet war on the side of Nazi Germany changed the political priorities. The anti-fascist elements in the illegal resistance took over the initiative in relations with Moscow. From the anti-fascist uprising in Slovakia, through the political developments in the first post-war years, the Slovak communists replaced spontaneous sympathy for Slavonic Russia with organized „love for the Soviet Union“.
General history. USSR. Czechoslovak Republic. Slovak state. Political ideas. Slovak – Russian relations.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
K sobášnej politike Bela IV. Dynastická svadba vo Zvolene a jej reflexie v historiografii
(On the Marriage Policy of Bela IV. The Dynastic Wedding at Zvolen and its Reflection in Historiography)
In the last decades extensive research was focused on the relationship between the Arpad and Romanovich dynasties. Considering the role of both dynasties the research was concentrated mostly on the political history and foreign contacts in Central and Eastern Europe. This research was less focused on the situation on the level of regional history. The aim of this entry is to summarize the historical sources related to the contacts between the Hungarian Kingdom and the Galician-Volynian Principality in the 1240s, and the interpretations of them. These contacts resulted in the marriage of Princess Constance and Prince Leo.
King Bela IV. Prince Danylo. Politics of appeasement. Royal residence in Zvolen.
Nové poznatky z pobytu Milana Rastislava Štefánika v Japonsku (október – november 1918)
(New Findings on the Visit of Milan Rastislav Štefánik to Japan (October – November 1918))
In this article, the author attempts to clarify three aspects of Štefánik’s visit to Japan on the basis of little known Japanese materials: 1) The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs received a summary of M.R. Štefánik’s life and career in English as official information and had it translated into Japanese. 2) In the Diplomatic Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tokyo, we found a written record in Japanese of Štefánik’s visit to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 15 October 1918. In this document with the title “Matter: Meeting of the representative of the minister Shidehara with General Štefánik”, Štefánik still emphasizes the German threat as an argument for escalation of the Japanese expedition in Siberia, which would enable the Czechoslovak Legions to return home from Siberia sooner. 3) A group including M. Janin and M.R. Štefánik spent four days in the city of Kyoto (9-12 November 1918). Their most noteworthy activity was a visit to the important Japanese businessman Kacutaró Inabata, which was reported in detail in the regional daily.
Milan Rastislav Štefánik. Armed struggle for Czechoslovak independence. Siberian expedition of Japan. The Czechoslovak Legions in Siberia.
Veda a „riadenie identity“. „Sudetonemeckí etnografi a ich vzťah k Slovensku na príklade časopisu Karpathenland (1928 – 1938)
(Science and the management of identity. Sudeten-German folklorists and their relationship to Slovakia: the example of the journal „Karpathenland“ (1928 – 1938))
The history of the journal „Karpathenland“ shows the attempts of Sudeten-German folklorists to support the unification of the Germans, living in inter-war Czecho-slowakia. Young scientists who were influenced by the nationalized Czech-German-relations of the Czech Lands came to Slovakia in order to research the traditional culture of the Germans in Slovakia. Their journal was intended to spread information about this culture, but the success among the Germans, especially in Spiš (Zips), was at first low. At the end of the thirties „Karpathenland“ was more and more influenced by National Socialist Germany. Finally Franz Karmasin, the Volksgruppenführer, became publisher of the journal in 1939.
Karpathenland History of Sudeten-German folklore Czechoslovakia 1918 – 1938.Sudeten-German-Slovak relations.
Spory o novú ústavu česko-slovenskej federácie v druhej polovici 80. rokov XX. storočia
(The Disputes about the New Constitution of the Czecho-Slovak Federation in the Second Half of the 1980s)
The creation of a joint state formation on the basis of Constitutional Act no. 143 from 27th October 1968 on the Czechoslovak Federation was an important step towards the equalization of the positions of the Slovak and Czech nations in Czechoslovakia. The disputes about the new constitution in the second half of the 1980s resulted from inconsistent observance of the act, which stated in article 142 that together with adoption of the constitution of Czechoslovakia, both member republics would adopt their own constitutions. However, the proposal of the socalled triple constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic showed the principles according to which the federation functioned. It represented a centralist organization of the state. It did not really progress beyond the understanding of the structure of the political system, the leading role of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, the National Front and the socialist system of social ownership according to the constitution of 1960. The leadership of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was not able to introduce the expected socio-political changes. The communist regime again determined the limits of the liberalization of the internal political situation. In spite of the partial compilation of the Constitutional Act on the Czechoslovak Federation from 1968, the proposed constitution could not eliminate the negative results of the legislation from December 1970. The proposal was evaluated as a step back in such fundamental questions as the solution of the Slovak and Czech question, profiling of national statehood, originality of the position of the national republics and the formation of the common state on its basis.
History. Czechoslovakia. Federation. Constitution of Czechoslovakia.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
RÜSEN Jörn, História: narácia, interpretácia, orientácia (Juraj Šuch) S. 191
ŘEPA Milan, Poetika českého dějepisectví (Marcela Bednárová) S. 193
KRAKOVSKÝ Roman, Rituel du 1er mai en Tchécoslovaquie 1948 – 1989 (Michal Kšiňan) S. 195
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK