OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Byzancia a Avarský kaganát v rokoch 623 - 624
(Byzantium and the Avar Khaganate in the years 623-624)
About 620 the Emperor Heraclius succeeded in concluding a temporary peace with the Avars and concentrating his forces exclusively in the struggle with Persia. In 622, during the first great offensive, the tactical and military maturity of the Byzan-tine army was demonstrated for the first time. However, Heraclius still could not use the strategic initiative enough in this period. The complicated relations with the Khaganate forced the Emperor to return to Constantinople and begin negotiations for a new peace treaty. The planned meeting with the Khagan of the Avars almost ended in personal catastrophe for the Emperor. Without regard for this incident, both sides had an interest in concluding peace. While the Byzantine side needed to continue the war with Persia, the Avars had to devote attention to stabilizing the situation in the Khaganate after the outbreak of Samo’s revolt. The agreement reached at the turn of the years 623/624 lasted until the Avar siege of Constantinople in 626.
Avars. Avar Khaganate. Byzantium, Heraclius.
Košickí študenti na Univerzite v Krakove v 15. a na začiatku 16. storočia
(Students from Košice at the University of Cracow in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries)
The focus of this study is the attendance of students from Košice at Cracow University until the 1520s, that is up to the decade of the Battle of Mohács and the first contacts with the Reformation in this town. After a brief introduction on the academic peregrination of students from Košice in general, the community of students who registered in Cracow is analysed, discussing events that influenced their attendan-ce and led to an almost total cessation after 1529. Aspects such as field and duration of study, social status of students and their graduation are examined and commented upon. The article is supplemented by the listing of students from Košice who matriculated in Cracow. By means of this study, I hope to provide a detailed picture of the academic peregrination of students from one of the most important towns in present day Eastern Slovakia.
Education. University history. Academic peregrination.
(Ne)záujem žen o účast v politice na stránkách českého ženského tisku ve druhé polovině 19. století a na počátku 20. století
(Interest and lack of interest of women in participation in politics according to Czech women’s magazines from the second half of the nineteenth and beginning of the 20th centuries)
The study is concerned with the political activities of women in the Czech Lands in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th centuries, especially the movement to gain the right to vote, and with the picture of this process in the press of the time. The method of promoting women’s demands, changes in the definition of the women’s question and specific features of the Czech women’s movement are traced on the basis of analysis of several women’s magazines.
Czech Lands. Political activities of women. Women’s magazines.
K niektorým aspektom kolonizácie južného Slovenska v období prvej republiky
(On some aspects of the colonization of southern Slovakia in the period of the First Republic)
The author of this study set himself the aim of capturing the ethnic aspects of the agricultural colonization of southern Slovakia. Colonization as part of the first land reform was one of the instruments for creating a nation state of the Czechs and Slovaks. The colonization plans, which came from leading figures in the State Planning Office, Ministry of Agriculture and other national organizations, supposed the settlement of tens of thousands of Slovak and Czech families in the frontier regions of southern Slovakia. The aim was to strengthen the security of the southern frontier and change the ethnic composition of the settled areas. However, the colonization, which began in 1921, did not achieve this aim. By the end of the 1920s only a little more than 3 thousand families were settled in about 130 colonies. The reasons for the relative failure lay in lack of financial resources. Colonization was also limited to some extent by disputes between Slovak institutions and the central offices in Prague.
Land reform. Colonization. Nationality question. Southern Slovakia
Luďácký exil v prvních měsících po komunistickém převratu v Československu
(The Ľudák exiles in the first months after the communist coup in Czechoslovakia)
The author documents the activities of the Slovak post-war exiles associated with the Slovak Republic of 1939-1945 and its regime in the period after the communist coup of February 1948. In this context, he devotes attention to the orientations represented by Ferdinand Ďurčanský and Karol Sidor, analysis of their programme concepts, unsuccessful attempts at unification including uncovering of the reasons, and finally also the problem of relations with the post-February 1948 exiles, who were all committed to Czechoslovak statehood. The military aspects of exile activities will also undoubtedly interest the readers.
Czechoslovakia. Slovak post-war exiles. Ferdinand Ďurčanský. Karol Sidor.
ARCHÍV / ARCHIVES
SEGEŠ Dušan – BYSTRICKÝ Valerián
Reflexia medzivojnového politického vývoja na Slovensku očami Varšavy
(Reflections on inter-war political developments in Slovakia through the eyes of Warsaw)
The Polish government in exile was formed in Paris on 30th September 1939, a month after the German and Soviet invasion of Poland, in which Slovakia participated. It re-evaluated the causes of the September catastrophe and formulated its political programme with the ultimate aim of regaining the independence of Poland. The collapse of the Versailles system created the need to work out a more effective security policy for Central Europe. The Polish government, which aspired to the role of regional power in the framework of new geopolitical conceptions, re-evaluated its relations with neighbouring states and nations. It started from an analysis of the situation in the inter-war period. This included some aspects and periods of Czecho-Slovak – Polish relations in the period 1918-1939. Soon after it formation, the Polish government in exile asked its diplomatic representatives abroad to provide information about the key turning points in Polish – Czecho-Slovak relations. The materials the diplomats sent to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs devoted attention to various aspects and periods, including the views and policies of the Polish government on the Slovak question before 1st September 1939. The first published document is a text by Zbigniew Jakubski with the title “Notes on Slovak affairs” from November 1939. The author was Polish vice consul in Bratislava from 1933 to 1937. The second document is a report by Wacław Łaciński, Polish consul in Bratislava 1932-1939, from October 1941. It summarizes the main events in Polish – Slovak relations in the period 1930-1938. The documents presented here deserve more attention, because they present the views of an important part of the Polish political scene in exile. They contain important information on Polish – Slovak or Slovak (Hlinka’s Slovak People’s Party) – Polish contacts. Explanation of the attitude of Polish diplomats towards Slovakia or Czechoslovakia and working out of Polish plans for the region are an inseparable part of these documents. The evaluations of Slovak politicians and assessments of their individual steps, as well as the level of knowledge of Slovakia presented by the Polish diplomats, are also noteworthy.
Slovak question. Poland. 1918-1938. Second World War. Diplomacy.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
Memoria Austriae. Bd. I Menschen, Mythen, Zeiten; Bd. II Bauten, Orte Regionen; Bd. III Unternehmer, Firmen, Produkte (Tibor Pichler) S. 365
ROMSICS Ignác, Trianonská mierová zmluva (Roman Holec) S. 367
KÁZMEROVÁ Ľubica – KATUNINEC Milan, Dilemy Karola Sidora (Milan Zemko) S. 371
HAĽKO Jozef, Ave crux. Život a dielo biskupa Ambróza Lazíka (Jan Pešek) S. 373
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK