OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Husitské vpády do Uhorska v rokoch 1428 – 1431
(The Hussite Raids into the Kingdom of Hungary in 1428 – 1431)
The study considers the influence of the Hussite revolution in Hungary in the period 1428-1431, when the Hussite were still limited to larger military campaigns and did not leave military garrisons in our territory, except at Likava in 1431. During the first expedition in 1428, the Hussites came to Bratislava and returned by the Váh valley. Two years later, the Hussite expedition culminated in a great battle near Trnava, which enabled the Hussites to obtain a great amount of loot in Hungary. The year 1431 brought two expeditions, in spring the Hussites looted the valley of the Dunajec and autumn, a powerful Hussite army passed through extensive parts of northern Hungary.
Kingdom of Hungary. Hussite Revolution. Sigismund of Luxembourg.
Židovská šlechta v podunajské monarchii (1848 – 1918)
(The Jewish Nobility in the Danubian Monarchy (1848 – 1918))
The year 1848 brought fundamental changes to the society of the Danubian Monarchy. The Jews were granted equal rights with the rest of the population of the Monarchy, and the euphoria evoked by these changes stimulated many of them to achieve great things. Some of them achieved an important social position, which was often crowned with the granting of a noble title. These successes, and especially the Vienna stock exchange crash of 1873 with the resulting economic crisis, as well as the mass influx of Jewish emigrants from Eastern Europe, stimulated the origin of modern anti-Semitism. However, the Jews continued to play an important role in the life of Austria or after 1867 Austria-Hungary. Their position was especially dominant among bankers and industrialists, but many worked in offices or the army, while some played distinguished roles in the cultural and scientific fields.
Jews. Austria and Austria-Hungary. New nobility. Granted titles. Anti-Semitism. Zionism. Conversion.
K problematike farských patronátov v Nitrianskom biskupstve za episkopátu Karola Kmeťka
(On the problem of parish patronage in the Diocese of Nitra during the Episcopate of Karol Kmetko)
Karol Kmeťko was one of the first three Slovak bishops in the oldest diocese and a future archbishop. Management of dioceses in accordance with the medieval system of patronage law was an unpleasant Hungarian heritage in Czechoslovakia, resulting from relationship of mutual support between the state and the Catholic Church. Retention of the patronage law while declaring the principles of a modern civil society was the result of the unsolved problems of delimiting dioceses, Church property and an independent Slovak province with its own archbishop. In spite of its efforts to communicate with the Vatican, Czechoslovak diplomacy was gradually finding itself in international isolation. During the years 1941 to 1943 Bishop Kmeťko attempted to abrogate the traditional patronages. It happened while ThD. Jozef Tiso, a priest from his diocese was president, but the initiative remained without success.
Church and State. Economic support for parishes. Karol Kmeťko 1875 – 1948, Diocese of Nitra, Patronage law.
Sudán na ceste k štátnosti (1936 – 1955)
(Sudan’s Road to a National State)
In the years before the Second World War there were signs that the period of unquestioned British authority was ending. The conclusion of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 was a critical event. Over the question of Sudan, the standpoints of Britain and Egypt were fundamentally irreconcilable. The years from 1946 to 1952 were an unhappy period in the history of modern Sudan. Two matters dominated the politics of the time: the dispute between Egypt and Britain. The passing of the Egyptian monarchy in 1952 appeared at first sight advantageous to British policy in the Sudan. Nevertheless the military junta in Egypt was convinced that by more flexible handling of the situation it could obtain better results than had been obtained by the monarchy. The final phase in the ending of the Condominium came on New Years Day of 1956 when the new Republic was declared.
History. Sudan. Sudans Road to a National State, 1936 – 1955.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Spoločenské aktivity maďarskej menšiny v okrese Nitra v rokoch 1939 – 1944
(Social activities of the Hungarian minority in the Nitra district in the period 1939-1944)
In spite of political restrictions, one of the official aims of the Hungarian Party in Slovakia and of the Hungarian intelligentsia remained development of the cultural life and improving the education of the Hungarian minority. The position of the Hungarian minority was specific. Its development was connected especially with the overall development of society and in particular with the gradual liquidation of pluralist democracy and the correct relationship to minorities in political life. Undemocratic interventions were mainly determined by Slovak – Hungarian relations. The deep ties of the Hungarian minority to their mother country were clearly unwelcome, especially in the frontier district of Nitra. The Hungarian minority could form political and social organizations, but in contrast to the German community, only within a very limited extent, which defined full activity in this field. Therefore, the party directed its attention mainly to perfecting its internal party work. However, political reciprocity further limited the freedom of action of the Hungarian Party in various areas of life. The results of the study arose mainly on the basis of research in the archive collections of the individual political and security offices.
Ľudské práva v druhej polovici 80. rokov 20. storočia a slovenská a česká spoločnosť
(Human rights in the second half of the 1980s and Slovak and Czech society)
Compared to the preceding period from 1970 to 1985, the second half of the 1980s in Czechoslovakia had specific features including a relaxation or liberalization of the situation. The author devotes attention to the international context, especially in connection with perestrojka in the Soviet Union, as well as the situation in the leadership of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and its political orientations. He confronts them with the activities of independent initiatives and the results of public opinion research. This research showed a decline in the weight of the Communist Party among the public. The citizens did not want the dictatorship of one political party, but democratization of the political system and overcoming of economic and social stagnation. The Helsinki process placed the emphasis on the Vienna and Paris talks of the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and on the question of human rights, which determined the development of the federal Czecho-Slovak state and also influenced Slovak and Czech society. The results of the suppression of the “Czech and Slovak spring” of 1968 with its specific features, also affected society. Social movement grew in 1988 and 1989 and contributed to the fall of the communist regime.
History. Czechoslovakia. Social development.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Nemecko-slovenská dohoda z roku 1942 o spolupráci na kultúrnom poli a jej realizácia v praxi
(The German – Slovak Agreement on Cultural Cooperation and its Implementation in Practice)
German – Slovak cooperation in the period of the Second World War did not include only the important questions of relations between the two states on the highest level, but also lesser fields not of primary importance for the development of states. Signing of the German – Slovak agreement on cooperation in the cultural field in May 1942 gave an institutional basis to the continuing relations between the Third Reich and the Slovak Republic, which became more intense after the origin of the new German satellite. The author of the study analyses the cultural agreement itself and its possible influence on the wider cooperation between the two states in the cultural and scientific fields. The cultural agreement defined the close cooperation between the two states, which already existed at the time of the signing of the agreement, and the parties to the agreement also committed themselves to the development of institutional cooperation. It emphasized the establishment of academic research institutes, which would not only serve the purpose of academic cooperation, but also the collection of information about the host country. Both states bound themselves to widen cooperation on the level of universities, whether by enlarging the body of teachers or by supporting the functioning of language departments in the other state. Finally, important questions would be discussed by the newly established German-Slovak Cultural Committee. The cooperation also included the fields of theatre, literature, journalism and even the regulation of censorship.After the signing of the cultural agreement, we can speak of a short-term increase of cooperation in the fields of science and culture, which was manifested not only in an increased number of articles about German culture in general in the most widely read periodicals, but also in an increased frequency of artistic events of the most varied type not only in Slovakia, but also in the territory of Germany. The greatest success was undoubtedly the exhibition of German sculpture in September 1942.
History. Second World War. Slovak state. Culture. Agreement.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
Ekonomika na Slovensku dvadsať rokov po februári 1948
(The Slovak economy 20 years after February 1948)
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
VOIT Petr, Encyklopedie knihy. Starší knihtisk a příbuzné obory mezi polovinou 15. a počátkem 19. století (Eva Frimmová) S. 597
AMMERER Gerhard – W EISS Alfred Stefan (Hrsg.), Strafe, Disziplin und Besserung. Österreichische Zucht- und Arbeitshäuser von 1750 bis 1850 (Gabriela Dudeková) S. 599
GILBERT Martin, Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction (Hana Klamková) S. 602
LAGOVÁ Veronika a kol., Smrť za mrežami (Jan Pešek) S. 606
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK