OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Spoločnosť a história – dve stránky jednej mince
(Society and history – two sides of the same coin)
History and society are two inseparable elements. One cannot exist without the other. History forms a society, develops and shapes it. This complex and sometimes contradictory process leads to the society attempting to understand itself, its route and its direction. The society creates for this purpose an independent scientific discipline, namely history. The fourteenth congress of the Slovak History Society analysed the way history is fulfilling its role in Slovakia. Various questions were asked and answers to them were sought:The importance for every society of history as a science is clear, but how does this apply in Slovak society? Are we at all aware of this correlation? Is our relationship to our past, our traditions and values, real? Is the relationship to our past only a matter for a handful of intellectu-als, specialists and historians, or is it present in the whole society? What is our historical consciousness? Slovak society gladly accepts the results of the correct work of Slovak historians, most of whom conscientiously add to the mosaic of the rich Slovak past, in spite of various pressures. However, there is another side to the same coin, which shows that there are many problems in the relationship of Slovak society to history: The politicians reach for the results of historical science only sporadically, and only when they need these results for their own purposes. This selective use of history, not only deforms historical knowledge, but also the historical consciousness of society. Slovak society suffers from an absence of historical education, which is inadequate and far from reaching the parameters of the neighbouring countries. Weak historical knowledge is reflected in people’s relationship to the national past. It is rather half-hearted, and not only in the schools, which are short of history textbooks and lessons for teaching history, but also in the institutions, namely archives and museums, which are obliged by law to care for the historical heritage of the country. However, even the historians themselves sometimes succumb to economic and pragmatic pressures. The result is inadequate research and so also bad interpretation of historical events.
History. Slovakia. Society. Historical knowledge. Historical consciousness. Historical science.
Profesia a ideologické výzvy. Scylla, Charibda a CISH
(Profession and ideological challenges. Scylla, Charybdis and the ICHS)
The article is devoted to the process of professionalization of history writing. It documents how the process of professionalization was exposed to various ideolo-gical challenges from the beginning. It was always complicated for the historian to maintain a declared independence and objectivity, since the subject of his research was the society of which he was himself a member. Ideological challenges came both from nationalism, as one of the dominant ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries, and from the totalitarian ideologies that accompanied the totalita-rian socio-political systems of the 20th century. Nationalism had the result that historiography began to concentrate especially on so-called national narratives. This caused the isolation and mutual estrangement of national historiographies. In opposition to this isolation, attempts at professional networking by historians already arose at the end of the 19th century. These led first to the holding of international congresses for the historical sciences, and from 1926 to the creation of the International Committee of the Historical Sciences (ICHS). In the past and in the present diversified world, this organization has always had to confront two threats: national isolationism on one side and complete abandonment of political and social engagement on the other.
Historiography as a profession. National narratives. National isolation. International congresses of the historical sciences.
Ako sa vidíme sami a ako nás vidí verejnosť. Reflexia po dvadsiatich rokoch
(How we see ourselves and how the public sees us – reflections after twenty years)
The author compares various common or varying features of Slovak historiography in the period between 1991 and 2011. He points to the internal differentiation of views within Slovak historiography. These do not derive from expert aspects of basic scientific research, but more from different views on the purpose of historical work. He also devotes attention to the permanent tension between historiography and political elites, which usually seek in history pragmatic confirmation of their own views and aims.
Historical consciousness. Society. Differentiated reflection of history.
Strážcovia strateného času. Diskusie o dejinách a historici na Slovensku
(Guardians of lost time. Discussions about history and historians in Slovakia)
The study is devoted to the problem of creating and cultivating historical culture in Slovakia. The author discusses especially the place of professional historians in this field. He points to the frequent overlapping of scientific and ideological discourse, which is closely connected with the well-known picture of the division of Slovak historiography into two camps. The result is repetition of circular discussions without innovative elements. However, this situation, often defined as plura-lity of views, only deepens backwardness and does not offer any new impulses for the development of professional writing of history in Slovakia.
Historiography. Historical culture. Collective memory. Slovak Historical Society.
„S radosťou vás očakávame v tento sviatočný deň…“ Svadba ako dôležitá súčasť rodinných festivít Esterházyovcov v prvej polovici 17. storočia
(“We are pleased to expect you on this joyful day…”. Weddings as an important part of family festivities of the Esterházys in the first half of the 17th century)
The study is a sounding into the family festivities of one of the most important families in Early Modern Hungary, the Esterházys. The picture of the wedding ritual is supplemented with examples from other aristocratic families. Aristocratic weddings were one of the important instruments of family policy and a potential source of increased power. The Palatine Nicholas Esterházy was a great strategist in the field of marriage in the first half of the 17th century. It is difficult to imagine that he would have gained the office of Palatine without his two advantageous marriages. Nicholas Esterházy conceived a family policy, in the context of which he planned the marriages of his descendants. He also organized and supported marriages at his court. Thanks to these marriages, he created a whole web of relationships at his court and in the counties where his properties were situated. Apart from marital politics, the study also examines the actual practices connected with weddings in this period, from engagement and banns to the actual ceremony.
Esterházy. Hungarian aristocracy. Family policy. Wedding. Wedding ceremony.Early Modern period.
Anton Štefánek a slovenské školstvo v prvých poprevratových rokoch (1918 – 1923)
(Anton Štefánek and Slovak education in the first years after the revolution (1918 – 1923))
The study is concerned with the activities of the journalist, politician, sociologist and teacher Anton Štefánek at the Bratislava office of the Ministry of Education and National Enlightenment, a branch of the central ministry in Prague. He made good use of his preceding years of national, social, political, cultural, educational and political activity, in favour of organizing and directing education and public information in Slovakia. Under Štefánek’s leadership in the period 1918 – 1923, the office of the ministry laid the foundations of Slovak education in the First Czechoslovak Republic. The institution participated in the Slovakization and unification of education in Slovakia and preparation of the so-called Little Education Act of 1922. Štefánek was a member and functionary of the Republican Party of Agrarian and Small-Farming People. He devoted attention to the institutionalization of education of the general public, especially of the rural population.
Office of the Ministry of Education and National Enlightenment in Bratislava.School system. Education of the general public.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Cesta prezidenta Beneše na Slovensko v roce 1936 a její ohlas v českém a slovenském tisku
(The visit of President Beneš to Slovakia in 1936 and the reaction to it in the Czech and Slovak press)
The study describes the visit of President Beneš to Slovakia in 1936 and the re-actions to it on the pages of the Czech and Slovak press. It considers not only the immediate reactions and editorials, but also attempts to capture the often different perceptions of the importance of the Slovak problem among the Czech and Slovak public. The analysis of the responses to the President’s visit help to elucidate Beneš’s views on the Slovak question, especially in relation to the wide spectrum of his supporters and opponents.
Edvard Beneš. Czechoslovakia 1918 – 1938. Visit to Slovakia in 1936. Czech and Slovak press.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
BITSKEY István, Petrus Cardinalis Pazmany, Archiepiscopus Strigoniensis (Ingrid Kušniráková) S. 734
JANURA Tomáš, Vidiecke a šľachtické sídla v Liptovskej stolici (Miloš Dudáš) S. 736
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK