OBSAH / CONTENTS
Princess Salomea and Hungarian – Polish Relations in the Period 1214 – 1241
Princess Salomea (1211/12 – 1268, canonized in 1673) was the daughter of Prince Leszek the White, and married Prince Koloman, son of the Hungarian King Andrew II. Since her early childhood, she was intricately involved in the decision-making process of Southwestern Poland and Hungary. Scepusia was the site of the meeting in 1214, at which Salomea’s marriage with Koloman was arranged. Koloman later became the King of Galicia. They changed their residence and came to Scepusia in 1221. In 1226, their influence spread to Southern parts of Hungary and they settled there at that time. Koloman and Salomea were also fighting heresy in the Balkans, an activity highly regarded by the Pope of the time. They were awarded an exemption from the interdict in 1234. Salomea is referred to in this text as regina. Even after her marriage Salomea remained deeply involved in the life of her homeland. After Koloman’s death in 1241, Salomea returned to Southwestern Poland.
History. Hungary. Princess Salomea in Hungarian and Polish Relations from 1214 – 1241.
The Ruthenian and Wallachian Population of Eastern Slovakia in the Middle Ages
Ruthenian inhabitants had their significant role in the national, social and legal, as well as religious structure of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. There were two waves in their settlement. At the beginning of the 14th century they entered the territory according to German law, but at the same time the Wallachian element could be recorded as well. The Wallachian element was fully dominant later. On the other hand, at the beginning the resident territory of Wallachian inhabitants, who claimed to be of Ruthenian nationality, in East Slovakia was the same as the older locations settled according to German law. The Ruthenians and Wallachians used the regressive development in the 15th century. Later they moved into new territories and established new settlements.
History. Slovakia. Middle Ages. History of settlements. Ruthenian inhabitants.
Palatine Paulus Pálffy´s Conflict with Archbishop Georgius Lippay of Esztergom
The present study deals with Palatine P. Pálffy´s conflict with the Archbishop of Esztergom Georgius Lippay in the years 1646 – 1653. The author used archive materials from the Trautmansdorf family archive and a memorandum written by P. Pálffy to the Emperor Ferdinand III. in the year 1650. As there are no archive documents, J. Lippay´s attitude to P. Pálffy is not known. P. Pálffy and J. Lippay were leaders of political groups which were against each other and their conflicts took place in the Hungarian parliament and at gatherings of the Hungarian nobility. The Vienna court was a significant place where the two representatives had their quarrels. The conflict had a negative influence on 17th century Hungary. Because of Rákoczy´s expeditions and Turkish attacks, Hungary faced an economic crisis, which required a unified approach from the Hungarian representatives, but the situation was different.
History. Hungary. Palatine Paulus Pálffy´s Conflict with Archbishop Georgius Lippay of Esztergom.
Ľudovít Štúr and the Beginnings of the Formation of the Generation of Young Sons of Slovakia
The author of the present study gives a survey of Ľ. Štúr’s youth. Ľ. Štúr was the leading personality in the Slovak national liberation movement, as well as the leader in the formation of the new patriotic generation in the second half of the 1830s. The author investigates the social and political atmosphere which charakterized the Habsburg Monarchy at the time. It was under the strong influence of revolutionary Young Europe, Polish enthusiasm and the activities of Polish and other Slavonic associations in Vienna. The author shows how they influenced Slovak students at the Bratislava secondary school which subsequently became the centre of the Slovak national movement. At the end of the 30s these young people discussed basic problems and were looking for solutions, which took place in the following decades. Special attention has been given to the idea of Slavonic mutual cooperation within the Monarchy, which found its reflection in the Slovak national revival.
History. Hungary. Ľudovít Štúr and the Beginnings of the Formation of the Generation of Young Sons of Slovakia.
The Role of Milan Hodža in Slovak Commercial Banking (1918 – 1938)
This is a study of so far unknown facts about the activities of Milan Hodža in the financial sector of Czechoslovakia from 1918 until 1938. Before World War I, Hodža had been trying to establish a strong Slovak bank in Budapest, but failed. This period of his Professional endeavours has already been extensively documented. However, only very limited attention has been paid to his similar activities in the newly founded Czechoslovakia. The information available is only about his screening of the market situation. Deeper examination is undertaken by the author, and shows that Hodža put a significant effort into pressuring the banks to merge. His tactic included extortion, corruption and bribery, even undemocratic governmental decisions. Between 1918 and 1938, Hodža managed to create a central monetary institution of public finances, and subordinated it to function in line with the economic interests of his own political party.
History. Czechoslovakia. Milan Hodža and role in the commercial banking 1918 until 1938.
The Society of Saint Adalbert from the End of the Second World War to the Change into a “Special Purpose Facility” (1945 – 1954)
The Society of Saint Adalbert (Vojtech) played a significant role in the religious and national life of the Slovak people for a long period of time. During World War II, it was at odds with the authorities, but managed to become a little more independent then in previous periods. The Democratic Party won the 1946 parliamentary election in Slovakia. This development was supposed to solidify the newly found independance of the Society of Saint Adalbert. Increases in publication rate and membership numbers were also encouraging this trend. After the Communist Party had taken power in 1948, the society fell on hard times. Its activities continued, but their scope was severely restricted and the Communist Party exercised strong control over them. People of the regime took over running the society, and prepared a new Charter in 1953. The society started to be defined as a religious institution without active membership, and the new Charter came into effect in 1954.
History. Czechoslovakia. History of the Society of Saint Adalbert (1945 – 1954).
Czechoslovakia against William Nathan Oatis
The story of the American journalist W. N. Oatis’ time in 1950s Prague is an integral part of Cold War history. It is a document on the non-democratic or totalitarian atmosphere in Communist Czechoslovakia where the state police was very power-ful. Oatis’s case followed the traditional scenario. Oatis was first followed by the state police, then arrested and accused of espionage. In the year 1950 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison. This process had two political dimensions – the internal and external. From the viewpoint of the internal context the state police proved links between some domestic political representatives and the imperialistic West; from the viewpoint of the external context this process proved that Czechoslovakia was not afraid of the USA. Oatis’ case was accompanied by intensive Czechoslovak-American diplomatic negotiations which resulted in economic and trade limitations and losses for Czechoslovakia.
History. Czechoslovakia. Oatis’ case and the Cold War of the 50s of the 20th Century.
Festivals in Slovakia as Part of Political Rituals
The structure of holidays and festivals in Slovakia has confirmed the fact that they are mainly religious, or better to say Catholic holidays and festivals. The data from recent census, symbolic motifs on banknotes and coins, as well as the official state awards confirm that the image of Slovakia has not exceeded the magic circle of preserved national traditions and confession of faith. The symbolism of state holidays and festivals and memorial days remains within the foundation myth and adoration of national heroes and traditions. The ritual content of holidays and festivals together with the symbols and myths used should confirm the legitimacy and strengthen the authority of their actors or those historical personalities or ideas which have been adoptet by a group. It is to provoke people’s emotions and enthusiasm towards the policy as well as manifest their understanding of the policy. Political attitudes have been formed more under the influence of symbolic forms than under utilitarian calculations.
History. Slovakia. Festivals in Slovakia as part of political rituals.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
AVENARIUS Alexander, The Byzantine Struggle over the Icon (Miroslav Daniš) S. 177
KOVÁČ Dušan et al., Slovakia in the 20th century. Volume one. Slovakia at the Beginning of the Century 1901 – 1914 (Gabriela Dudeková) S. 178
ZEMKO Milan – BYSTRICKÝ, Valerián (eds.), Slovakia in Czechoslovakia 1918 – 1939 (Elena Mannová) S. 182
DEÁK Ladislav, The Vienna Arbitration 2nd November 1938. Documents I., II., III. (Valerián Bystrický) S. 186
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