Year: 2012, vol: 60, number: 1
OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Verejné staviteľstvo v neskoroantickom Ríme ako médium politickej propagandy. Svedectvo nápisov a právnych dokumentov
(Public buildings in Late Antique Rome as a medium for political propaganda. The testimony of inscriptions and legal documents)
In the era of the Late Roman Empire – 4th and 5th centuries – the public buildings of the city of Rome not only passively reflected the political, religious and economic changes affecting the Roman Empire in the period of intensive barbarian raids and the gradual Christianization of society. They also actively served as a medium for political propaganda from the ruling elite. This study poses two inter-related basic questions: How did public building in Late Antique Rome reflect the substantial changes in politics, religion and culture? How were these changes perceived by the ruling elite, which interpreted and defined the basic problems of building in inscriptions and legislation?
Public buildings. Architecture, Ekphrasis. Late Antique Rome. Propaganda. Inscriptions. Legal documents.
…títo malomešťania na niečo také ešte nedorástli… Kasína v Modre – neznáma súčasť kasínového hnutia a procesu „národného prebúdzania“
(…These small town people have still not matured to something like that… The casino in Modra – an unknown part of the casino movement and process of “national awakening”)
The casino movement in the Kingdom of Hungary also found a response in Modra, which belonged to the category of smaller towns. It is a previously unknown development, not mentioned in the comprehensive study of the casino movement. The author’s analysis is based on hitherto unknown documents. She clarifies the process of establishment of a town casino, analyses the leadership of the club and its relationship to the Slovak casino. The latter originated on an ethnic basis and came into long-term conflict with the town casino. Both casinos became venues for cultivated social life, differentiation of political positions in a revolutionary period and a form of national representation.
Casino movement. Modra. Town casino versus Slovak casino. 1848 revolution.
Telesná výchova a šport v období 1. Slovenskej republiky
(Physical education and sport in the period of the First Slovak Republic)
In contrast to the apparently apolitical sport, the physical education organizations in the democratic system of the First Czechoslovak Republic were connected with individual political parties. When a totalitarian system began to form in Slovakia, they were a welcome means for settling accounts with political opponents. This happened soon after the declaration of the autonomy of Slovakia on 6 October 1938. The declaration of autonomy had a positive influence on sport at first. National sports unions were formed, and from 7 March 1939, they were placed under the Slovak Central Sports Council (Slovenská ústredná športová rada). Sport maintained its independence outside the framework of the Hlinka Guard even after Act no.166 on the Hlinka Guard was adopted. The act entrusted the guard with organizing physical education and sport as the only national physical education and defence organization.
Slovakia. First Slovak Republic. Physical education. Sport.
Několik poznámek k ruské pravoslavné obci v Bratislavě v letech 1924–1945 v kontextu podmínek ruského exilu
(A few remarques upon the Russian Orthodox parish of Bratislava in the years 1924–1945, in the context of the Russian exile conditions)
The spiritual life of the Russian Orthodox community in Bratislava 1924–1945 represents – in contrast to the monastery of St. Hiob in Ladomirova in North-Eastern Slovakia – a hardly known chapter at the cross-point of Slovakian and Russian history. About 25,000 emigrés from Russia found shelter in Czechoslovakia as a consequence of the Bolshevist revolution and the debacle of the White movement. Most of the emigrés came after 1921, after the Russian Relief Action of the Czechoslovak government had been launched. About 2000 persons settled scattered all over Slovakia. In Bratislava, however, the biggest Slovakian emigré centre came into being (in the 30s about 500 persons). In 1924 the Russian Orthodox parish was founded. Three Russian priests were in service there until 1945, acting not just in Bratislava but also in other Slovakian communities where Russian emigrés lived. Metropolitan Evlogy (Georgievsky) appreciated their selfless work among the exiles very much. Beyond the religious function sensu stricto the Russian orthodox community of Bratislava organized charity aid for needy fellow-countrymen in the city. During World War II, the work of Bratislavian parishioners extended significantly, including Russian citizens from the occupied territories of the USSR as well. Bishop Sergy´s possibilities, however, to visit orthodox communities of Metropolitan Evlogy´s jurisdiction in Slovakia became complicated.
Czechoslovakia. Slovakia. World War II. Russian Orthodox Church. Parish in Bratislava 1924-1945.
Egypt v siločiarach veľmocenskej politiky v polovici 60. rokov 20. storočia
(Egypt’s Role in Superpower Politics in the mid-1960s)
The coming to Power of Lyndon B. Johnson and the expulsion of Nikita Khruschev from the Kremlin brought about important changes in the relationship between the superpowers and the Arab states. The period witnessed a steady deterioration of both inter-Arab and US-Arab relations. By the end of 1964 US-Egyptian relations reached a crisis. Several developments led to this point: 1. further Egyptian economic and military dependence on the Soviet Union; 2. Egypt’s involvement in the Arab-Israeli conflict; 3. Egyptian military and political support of the rebels in the Congo; 4. Egypt’s armed presence in Yemen; 5. the burning of the Kennedy Library in Cairo; 6. US economic threats against Cairo. The calm that marked the period was deceptive; the storm was never far away.
History. The Cold War in the Middle East in the mid-1960s.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Národohospodári Imrich Karvaš – Peter Zaťko a slovenská otázka v tridsiatych rokoch 20. storočia
(The national economists Imrich Karvaš and Peter Zaťko and the Slovak question in the 1930s)
This study is an analysis of the views and conceptions of the Slovak national economists Imrich Karvaš and Peter Zaťko in relation to solution of the Slovak question in the thirties up to 6 October 1938. A further aim of the study is analysis of the concept of regionalism in the understanding of Imrich Karvaš and Peter Zaťko as a compromise approach between autonomism and centralism to solution of the Slovak question in the 1930s. The study also outlines the actual activities of I. Karvaš and P. Zaťko, which contributed to dynamization of the process of sol-ving the Slovak question in the thirties: establishment of the magazine Politika, the conference of the young Slovak generation on 25th and 26th June 1932 at Trenčianske Teplice and their activity in Slovak economic corporations.
1930s. Imrich Karvaš. Peter Zaťko. Regionalism.
ARCHÍV / ARCHIVES
SCHRIFFL David – SCHVARC Michal
„Vec: Československo“. Neznáma správa Wernera Göttscha o okolnostiach vzniku Slovenského štátu
(“Subject: Czechoslovakia”. An unknown report by Werner Göttsch on the circumstances of the origin of the Slovak state)
Part of the historical community and the lay public generally regard the circumstances of the origin of the Slovak state as a well-researched and closed theme. Our research over several years into German sources in foreign archives shows that this is not true. Documents are constantly found that disturb the familiar stereotypes or even overturn them. They undoubtedly include the hitherto practically unknown report of Werner Göttsch, a member of the Führer’s Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst – SD). It is not only interesting for the fact that it originated two weeks after the turbulent events, but especially for its content. Its author presents some entirely new facts, which shed some new light on the circumstances of the origin of the Slovak state in March 1939. In particular, he deals with the role of Vojtech Tuka in the plans of the SD foreign intelligence and the Berlin Foreign Ministry, a view of the Slovak political spectrum from the point of view of the intelligence bodies of the Reich, the activities of the SD in the autonomous Slovak region and the role of the leadership of the German minority during the March events of 1939. It also gives the researcher a picture of the relations between the individual components of the Nazi apparatus, which had Slovakia in their job description, and the rivalry between the two components of the SD – domestic and foreign. The hitherto unknown aspects of the role of V. Tuka in the political game surrounding Slovak independence are also a promising stimulus for further discussion in Slovak historiography.
Sicherheitsdienst, Auswärtiges Amt, Origin of the Slovak state, German – Slovak relations, Break up of Czecho-Slovakia, Vojtech Tuka, March events of 1939.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
KRATOCHVÍL Viliam, Staronové druhy narácií v didakticko-historických textoch
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
SROKA Andrej Stanislav, Średniowieczny Bardiów i jego kontakty z Małopolska
(Pavol Hudáček) S. 149
WINIWARTER Verena – KNOLL Martin, Umweltgeschichte; Uekötter, Frank: Umweltgeschichte im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert
(Roman Holec) S. 154
ŠUCHOVÁ Xénia, Idea československého štátu na Slovensku 1918 – 1939
(Bohumila Ferenčuhová) S. 158
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK