Year: 2012, vol: 60, number: 4
OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Víno a vinohrady v testamentoch bratislavských mešťanov zo 16. storočia
(Vineyards and wine in Bratislava wills from the 16th century)
Wine-production played an important role both in the economic structure and in every day life in the Late Middle Ages and in Early Modern times. The second Testamentary Book of the town of Bratislava includes 388 last wills from the period 1529−1557. Three-quarters of the testaments or wills (276 documents) contain orders about vineyards. The study analyses the sexual division, the trade and the property status of the owners. Moreover its provides insights on the real estate concentration and on the wine trade in Central Europe in the Early Modern period.
Wine-production. Vineyard. Bratislava. Wills. Real estate concentration. Wine trade.
Historická exkluzivita v ideológii elít ilyrizmu prvej polovice 19. storočia
(Historical Exclusiveness in the Ideology of the Elites of Illyrianism of the First Half of the 19th Century)
The idea of South Slav unity took root in the Balkan region in the first half of the 19th century. Its representatives, who were mainly Croatian intellectuals, but partly also Slovenes and Serbs in the Habsburg Monarchy, thought that the Balkan Slavs were the direct descendents of the ancient Illyrians. This theory connected with the idea of the unbroken historical continuity of the South Slav “nation”, which was an important part of the national myth of the period. The national stories of the Illyrian movement emphasized medieval struggles with the Tartars and Turks. They exaggerated the merits of the “Illyrians”, who were allegedly solely responsible for saving the country from the invaders. Legends about the brave Slavonic warriors presented heroism as a common feature of the South Slavs. The term “Illyrian” evoked the image of a great hero, who is able to sacrifice his life to defend his country again barbarism, decline and oppression. Stories about the warriors fighting the Tartars or Turks were accompanied by idealization and mythologizing of historical figures, whose actions were usually attributed to national motivations. Their names became symbols of manly virtue and struggle for freedom, and so also role-models for contemporaries.
Illyrian movement. Illyrianism. Croatism. Balkans. National myth. Foundation legends. South Slav unity. Croatian national identity. Greater Illyria. National heroes and martyrs.
Obvinenia z „rituálnych vrážd“ v Hornom Uhorsku. Antisemitská propaganda, politický katolicizmus a národnostná otázka na prelome 19. a 20. storočia
(Accusations of “Ritual Murders” in Upper Hungary. Anti-Semitic Propaganda, Political Catholicism and the Nationality Question around 1900)
The study is devoted to the hitherto unstudied phenomenon of accusations that Jews in Upper Hungary were involved in so-called “ritual murders”, in the context of the modernization of anti-Jewish prejudices around 1900. The key question is: To what degree was the transformation of traditional accusations away from ritual murders reflected in the propaganda of the anti-liberal opposition figures led by the representatives of political Catholicism, and not least in relation to their nationality policy and the reactions of representatives of the Slovak national movement.
Ritual murders. Upper Hungary. Anti-Semitism. Propaganda. Political Catholicism. Nationality policy
Úloha Jozefa Lenárta v roku 1968
(The Role of Jozef Lenárt in 1968)
The study is concerned with the political activities of Jozef Lenárt, Czechoslovak premier and member of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Analysis of his relations with Antonín Novotný and Alexander Dubček serves as a starting point. Lenárt’s televised speech from March 1968, when he strove to explain his actions in January 1968, is considered. From May 1968, Lenárt inclined to the Soviet vision of political developments in Czechoslovakia. The paper analyses Lenárt’s activities after 21 August 1968 with the conclusion that by gradually changing his political orientation he secured the continuation of his political career.
Jozef Lenárt. Prague Spring. Political history. 1968. Occupation. Antonín Novotný. Alexander Dubček.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
Rakúska historiografia a slovenské dejiny
(Austrian Historiography and Slovak History)
Slovak history and the history of the territory of Slovakia are not frequent themes in Austrian historiography. They have appeared only marginally and especially as part of the history of the Kingdom of Hungary up to 1918 or as part of the history of Czechoslovakia after 1918. This was a result of various factors. One of them was the fact that the destiny of the Slovaks and Austria were connected only with mediation. They were rarely directly connected. Only a few Austrian historians were concerned with the history of Slovakia before Slovakia became independent in 1993. In spite of this, we can say that notable authors such as Kurt Wessely, Helmut Slapnicka and Ludwig von Gogolák have written about the Slovaks, while Richard G. Plaschka and Horst Haselsteiner have not avoided them. The formation of a new state close to Austria reminded the Austrian public that Slovaks as well as Czechs lived in former Czechoslovakia. This was reflected not only in writing about current issues, but also in Austrian historiography. Slovakia and its history became more frequent subjects in Austria at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century. Cooperation between the academic institutions of the two countries also supported this. Thanks to this, various Austrian – Slovak projects have started. The Österreichisches Ost- und Südost-europa-Institut in Vienna and its director Arnold Suppen have played an important role in this. Other Austrian researchers, such as Karl Schwarz, Valeria Heuberger, Friedrich Gottas, Valter Lukan, Thoma Kletečka, Martin Seger, Helmut Rumpler and Peter Jordan, began to research the history of Slovakia. Arnold Suppan, Karl Schwarz, Harald Heppner and others stood at the birth of Slovak – Austrian academic publications, which brought the great university centres: Vienna University, Karl Franz University in Graz, Klagenfurt University and others into research and promotion of Slovak history. At the beginning of the 21st century, Slovakia and its history has already become a lively part of Austrian historiography.
History. Austrian historiography. Slovak history.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Osud majetku IBM v Československu v rokoch 1951 – 1961
(The Fate of the Property of IBM in Czechoslovakia in the Period 1951–1961)
The question of the imposition of state administration on the property of IBM in Czechoslovakia in September 1952 is one of the still un-researched problems of Czechoslovak – American relations in the period after the communists seized power in Prague. It was retaliation for the blocking of a Czechoslovak rolling mill in the USA and against the American suspension of most favoured national status for Czechoslovakia in the framework of GATT at the beginning of the 1950s. For decades, this retaliatory measure was part of a package of open economic and financial questions in Czechoslovak – American bilateral relations. In this package of open bilateral questions, the most important were: on the American side compensation for nationalized property in Czechoslovakia, and on the Czechoslovak side the return of 18.4 tons of monetary gold. Other questions, including state control of the property of IBM, were secondary and did not represent neuralgic points in relations between the Soviet satellite and Atlantic superpower. Talks continued for decades, although interrupted by periods of “silence”. The USA and Czechoslovakia reached a final agreement only on 29 January 1982.
Property of IBM. Punched card machines. Multipliers. State administration. Open financial questions. USA. Czechoslovakia. Monetary gold. Rolling mill. Compensation for nationalized property. Most favoured nation.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
BARTL Július, Mesto Bratislava či Podhradie pred rokom 1291? S. 719
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
OLEXÁK Peter, Neskorá antika a rané kresťanstvo (Marek Meško) S. 727
CHVOJKA Michal, Josef Graf Sedlnitzky als Präsident der Polizei- und Zensurhofstelle in Wien (1817-1848). Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Staatspolizei in der Habsburgermonarchie (Eva Kowalská) S. 730
KOVÁŘ Martin, Město a hry. Příběh londýnských olympiád (Jakub Drábik) S. 732
LANGER Jiří, Lidové stavby v Evropě (Juraj Podoba) S. 736
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK