OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
O výbere viery a chazarskej otázke na kyjevskej Rusi
(On the Choice of Religion and the Khazar Question in Kievan Rus)
This article considers the process of acceptance of Christianity by the Rus during the reign of Vladimir and the question of the choice of religion facing the ruler of Kiev as a result of the interest of four great religions in Kievan Rus. It is also devoted to the Khazar question, which is inseparably linked with the “choice of religion”. As a result of the acceptance of Judaism by the Khazars, this question is directly connected with the historical development of the Jewish nation and its role in the formation of Kievan Rus.
Kievan Rus, Khazar Khaganate, Religion, Judaism, Byzantine Empire, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Polemics, Bulgaria, Cyrillo-Methodian Mission, Apocrypha.
Najstaršia úprava dedičského práva na príklade slobodného kráľovského mesta Trnavy do konca 16. storočia
(The Oldest Amendment of the Inheritance Law Taking the Royal Borough of Trnava up to the End of the 16th Century as an Example)
The author devotes attention to Early Modern practices in connection with wills in the royal borough of Trnava as a member of the group of treasury (tavernicalis) towns. She has narrowed her research base to the 16th and 17th centuries and the archives of the Trnava town authorities, in which the first surviving wills date from 1511. She traces the inheritance procedure of inheritance from a will in the summary of questions of the right to establish a will (and other actions of the mortis causa), determination of the group of legal heirs, freedom of bequest, formal signs of the establishment of a will and the basic material-legal principles of town inheritance law in the Kingdom of Hungary in Early Modern times. The result is only a legal historical sketch of inheritance practice at Trnava, but it opens the way to further research on the extensive documentary material from the following centuries, since the researched collection is remarkable for the preservation of the originals, rather than the usual preservation of the libris testamentorum.
Trnava, Municipal law, Legal custom, Will (testamentum), Inheritance practice, Freedom to bequeath, Identification of the heir, Articuli iuris tavernicalis (Articles of the Treasury Law), Summa legum Raimundi, Inherited property, Legate, Principle of collation.
Vojnoví zajatci, internovaní, vysídlení. Aktivity Józsefa Mindszentyho, kardinála Maďarska v oblasti ľudských práv1945 – 1948a
(Prisoners of War, Internment, Deportation. The Activity of the Hungarian Cardinal József Mindszenty in the Field of Human Rights (1945 – 1948))
József Mindszenty, appointed Archbishop of Esztergom on 16 August 1945, became world famous as one of the symbols of the struggle against communism. He held his position as archbishop and primate until 1974. However, he was only really able to serve in these functions for a little less than four years. The political police arrested him on 26 December 1948 and the People’s Court in Budapest sentenced him to life imprisonment. During his time as archbishop, he was extra-ordinarily active. He initiated various actions by the Church, which had to confront radical changes in society and the political system. He attempted to find his place and secure the position of the Church in the framework of these new conditions. The study is devoted to his activity in the field of human rights. It gives evidence that Mindszenty did everything possible for people suffering from discrimination or persecution, whether in the domestic or international context. As the head of the Catholic hierarchy or as a public figure in Hungary, he considered it his duty to influence public opinion in favour of Hungarians in internment and prisoner of war camps, as well as in cases of legally unjustified proceedings against war criminals. He acted similarly on the questions of the expulsion of Hungarians from Slovakia and Germans from Hungary. At the same time, all his argumentation inclined to the conception of the ethnic integrity of Hungary. He was a relentless, consistent and passionate defender of his views, and was still convinced of their correctness during his trial. As he stated to the court, he had carried out his “pastoral and humanitarian duties”.
Peace Treaty of 1947, Deportation, Prisoners of War, People’s Court, Political Police, Ethnic revision, Exchange of populations, Human rights.
Postoje Alexandra Dubčeka k štátoprávnemu vývoju ČSFR v rokoch 1989 – 1992
(Alexander Dubček’s Views on the Constitutional Development of Czechoslovakia in the period 1989 – 1992)
The politician, humanist and democrat Alexander Dubček, a leading personality from the Czechoslovak or Prague Spring of 1968, held the position of chairman of the Federal Parliament of the Czecho – Slovak Federal republic from 1990 until the parliamentary elections of June 1992. The parliament, together with the national councils of the Czech and Slovak republics laid the foundations of parliamentary democracy during this period. Dubček, a leading supporter or Czecho – Slovak partnership, had an important role in the political, social and constitutional development of Czecho-Slovakia and its two national republics. He participated in the preparation of a proposed constitution of Czecho-Slovakia and he chaired the Federal Constitution Commission. He took part in many discussions of the national and federal representatives on constitutional questions. He was a supporter of political agreement between representatives, and he also applied this policy in the Federal Parliament. After the parliamentary elections of June 1992, he no longer influenced the development of Czecho-Slovakia.
Alexander Dubček, Political development in Czecho-Slovak relations, Czecho-Slovak Federation.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
K otázke uznania Slovenského štátu (Slovenskej republiky) Nórskym kráľovstvom, 1939 –1940
(On the Question of Recognition of the Slovak State (Slovak Republic) by the Kingdom of Norway, 1939 – 1940)
Recognition is one of the legal acts which permit a new state to enter the international community as a full partner. It establishes normal relations between two states as a precondition of their mutual communication in politics, as well as in economics and other fields. Thus, swift recognition by as many states as possible is the first task of every newly established foreign ministry. As early as 15 March 1939, the Slovak foreign ministry notified its prospective counterparts about the birth of the Slovak State. The Norwegian foreign ministry was to make a stand on recognition. Due to the tense international situation on the eve of WWII, this turned into a lengthy process of consideration, complicated even more by the outbreak of the war in September 1939. Early in April 1940, Norway was about to give a de facto recognition. However, the Nazi invasion in the same month stopped the action, which, nonetheless, somewhat disturbed the initial contacts between Norwegian and Czechoslovak exile representations.
Norway, Slovakia, Diplomatic relations, Recognition, WWII, Peace feelers, 1939–1940
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Počiatky pustovníkov sv. Augustína vo Veľkom Šariši
(The Beginnings of the Hermits of St. Augustine at Veľký Šariš)
Apart from donations and property transactions, the published medieval sources from the territory of Slovakia are full of disputes and other judicial proceedings connected with land and boundaries. Sometimes it seems that the only subject of medieval documents is disputes about land. Fortunately, this is only a superficial impression of the period. It is a result of the preservation of only part of the written material, a part that was more carefully stored and preserved to the present day. This category also includes a document from 1345. It concerns a dispute solved by the Palatine Nicholas of Perín about the boundaries of a field near the village of Červenica (Werusalma), between Rikolf son of Rikolf originally from the noble family of the Lords of Veľká Lomnica and the Monastery of St. Stanislav at Veľký Šariš, represented by the monk Lawrence.
Order of St. Augustine, Middle Ages, Slovakia, Veľký Šariš
Poľské akcenty v českom a slovenskom samizdate a v exilových publikáciách v 80. rokoch 20. storočia
(Polish Accents in Czech and Slovak Samizdats and in Exile Publications of the 1980s.)
The study is devoted to the problem of the presence of Polish authors from the ranks of the opposition, poets, writers and philosophers (Czesław Miłosz, Leszek Kołakowski) in Czech and Slovak samizdats. The publications from the environment of the Czech and Slovak political opposition presented not only domestic authors, but also the work of foreign writers including Poles. This testifies to their great organizational and editorial possibilities, enabling a relatively extensive pre-sentation of authors from other states of the so-called Soviet Bloc.
Soviet Bloc. Czech and Slovak Samizdats. Exile Publications. Polish authors.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
TEICH Mikuláš – KOVÁČ Dušan – BROWN Martin D., Slovakia in history (Adam Hudek) S. 167
DUDEKOVÁ Gabriela a kol., Na ceste k modernej žene. Kapitoly z dejín rodových vzťahov na Slovensku (Ivan Kamenec) S. 170
HRUBOŇ Anton (Ed.)., Msgr. ThDr. Ján Ferenčík (1888 – 1950). Život, verejné pôsobenie, kontroverzie (Stanislav V. Chytka) S. 173
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK