Year: 2013, vol: 61, number: 2
OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Byzantská ríša a Antiochijské kniežatstvo za vlády Jána II. Komnena (1118 – 1143)
(Byzantium and the Principality of Antioch in the reign of John II. Komnenos (1118 – 1143))
This contribution is about the eastern policy of the famous Byzantine Emperor, John II. Komnenos (1118 – 1143) and his relations with crusaders in the Near East. In the first part the author briefly describes the political situation in the Near East in the 11th Century after the accession of the Emperor Alexios Komnenos in 1081 and the development of the city of Antioch. Antioch was one of the most important cities for the Byzantines and to acquire it was a major goal for the Emperor Alexios and his son John II. The main part of this article chronologically describes two campaigns of John II. to Antioch and their results. The sudden death of the Emperor in Cilicia (1143) put a stop to the Byzantine offensive and saved Antioch from occupation.
Military history. Byzantium. John II. Komnenos. Near East. Antioch. Crusader states.
Právne postavenie vdovy v stredovekom Uhorsku do roku 1222 a otázka venného
(The Legal Position of Widows in Medieval Hungary up to 1222 and the Question of Dowries)
In this study, the author is concerned with the position of widows in medieval society. He considers the development of basic ideas about their position on the basis of the decrees of Frankish synods and Early Medieval laws. The main part of the work is devoted to widows in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary during the earliest period from the 11th century to the issuing of the Golden Bull in 1222. The subject of this is the position of widows according to the individual points of the Hungarian law codes of St. Stephen, St. Ladislav and Koloman. The main question is the claim of widows to property and the gradual changes in this area up to the beginning of the 13th century. The main emphasis is placed on the search for the beginnings of the dowry as property, which the woman kept after the death of her husband. The study includes a detailed analysis of the wills of important women, widows, but also widowers. Evidence of the property rights of widows and the first indications of the existence of the dowry are sought in these documents.
Medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Early medieval laws. Medieval property rights. Widows. Dowry. Medieval wills. Important women.
Dejiny Hlohovca po páde Veľkej Moravy do roku 1275 s osobitným zreteľom na polohu hradu Szolgagyőr
(The History of Hlohovec from the Fall of Great Moravia to 1275 with Special Regard for the Location of the Castle of Szolgagyőr)
The study offers a review of the history of Hlohovec from the fall of Great Moravia to 1275. It describes in detail the capture of Hlohovec by the old Magyars on the basis of historical records and archaeological finds from the rich old Magyar horseman’s grave, discovered at Hlohovec. The aim is to consider the existence of a Great Moravian hillfort at Hlohovec, to describe the most typical groups in the population of the county castle of Hlohovec, and to prove the identity of the castles of Hlohovec and Szolgagyőr and their counties in the 13th century. The author compares their most important dignitaries, namely their sheriffs and analyses the distribution of the properties of Hlohovec Castle in various counties, changes of ownership and transfer of some settlements to the castle of Szolgagyőr and Hlohovec.
Lajos Hlohovec. Hlohovec Castle. Old Magyars. Hungarian chronicles. Great Moravian hillforts. Szalgagyőr Castle.
Slovenští Židé v ghettu Terezín (1944 – 1945)
(Slovak Jews in the Terezín Ghetto (1944-1945))
1450 people were deported from the Jewish transit camp in Sered, Slovakia, to the Terezín Ghetto in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in 4 transports between December 1944 and March 1945. Eleven of the deported perished on the way from Sered while 35 died in Terezín. The rest survived the Holocaust. Based on research in Czech and Slovak archives, as well as in oral and visual history databases and books of memoirs, the paper studies the experience of the people deported to Terezín from Slovakia in its various aspects – their origin (there was a number of Hungarian nationals among the deportees), their previous fates (parti-cularly after the German occupation of Slovakia from August 1944), the extent of knowledge about the mass extermination of Jews „in the East“ among those deported from Slovakia in comparison with other Terezín inmates, their living conditions in the Ghetto (including health and sanitation, public, cultural and religious life), the fate of children among the Slovak Jews in Terezín and the specific experience of the end of the war and liberation.
Terezín. Slovakia. Jews. Holocaust. Shoah.
Viliam Široký a Július Ďuriš – Rodinný pôvod, sociálne pomery a začiatky pôsobenia v komunistickom hnutí
(Viliam Široký and Július Ďuriš – Family Origin, Social Relations and Beginnings of their Work in the Communist Movement)
Viliam Široký and Július Ďuriš, who lived in a nationally mixed environment, were convinced communists from their youth. The fact that they came from socially weak backgrounds also influenced their ideological orientation. Široký engaged in the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from its origin and quickly gained a place among the most important communist functionaries in Slovakia. As a result of his studies, Ďuriš only began his career as a professional revolutionary at the end of his twenties, but in this period he already showed his radicalism. From the beginning of their revolutionary activities, Široký and Ďuriš came into conflict with the state authorities and were forced to live in illegality for some time. During the internal party crisis around the turn of the years 1928-1929, they joined the group around Klement Gottwald and supported the so-called Bolshevization of the CPC. Široký later worked in the apparatus of the Communist Internationale. In 1935 he became a member of parliament. In the mid 1930s, Ďuriš became organizational secretary of the Regional Leadership of the CPC in Slovakia.
Family origin. Youth. Revolutionary movement. Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Viliam Široký. Július Ďuriš. Professional revolutionary. Illegality.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
ROUPA Michal – KUSENDOVÁ Dagmar
Historická podmienenosť regionálnych demografických rozdielov na Slovensku
(The influence of the historical demographic spatial patterns on current demographic spatial patterns in Slovakia)
This paper deals with comparison of regional differences of demographic characteristics in Slovakia in 1930 and 2001. The paper examines how regional demographic variability in 1930s affected today‘s regional demographic variability. It examines changes of regional variability of fertility, non-marital fertility, age at marriage, divorce rate, infant mortality, and age, ethnic, religious, educational and economic structures of population. For both years, districts are used as regional units. Firstly, regional differences in 1930 and 2001 are compared by visual examination of thematic maps. Districts are then ranked by values of demographic indicators and ranks in 1930 and 2001 are compared by scatter plots and Spearman‘s rank correlation coefficients. The results show that regional differences in most of the demographic characteristics have substantially changed. It means that present-day regional demographic differences are affected more by development in the past 70 years than by the situation in 1930. The exceptions are in ethnic and religious structure with a strong relationship between regional variability in 1930 and 2001. Special attention is paid to the districts which have undergone extreme change in rank between 1930 and 2001. The paper also describes two historical demographic data sources – 1930 Population Census of Czechoslovakia and interwar Czechoslovak Vital Statistics.
Regional demographic differences. Slovakia. Interwar period. 1930 Population Census of Czechoslovakia.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
ZAUŠKOVÁ Ľubica – MIDRIAK Rudolf – KRAJČOVIČ Vladimír
Novodobé pustnutie kultúrnej poľnohospodárskej krajiny Slovenska v historickom kontexte
(Modern abandonment of agricultural land in Slovakia in its historical context)
After the socio-economic events in Slovakia in 1989, an abandonment of cultural agricultural land poses a problem of extensive non-use of land (approximately 17.5% to 18.6%). The article discusses the history of this phenomenon in the country through changes in land (soil fund) development during the first Czechoslovak Republic and from 1945 until now. During the first Czechoslovak Republic, Slovakia had historically the largest areas of grassland (1,050,118 ha) and arable land (1,942,770 ha). Since then the area of agricultural land has declined, while the acreage of forest land (parcels) has risen. In the period 1998 - 2006 there was an overall loss of arable land of about 49,084 ha, which is the most in the modern history of Slovakia after its creation in 1993.
Rural land. Evolution of land use. First Czechoslovak Republic. Slovakia. Present-day abandonment of agricultural land.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
NOVÁK Jozef, Mestotvorný proces Bratislavy sa naozaj zavŕšil na území Podhradia S. 391
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
ŠVORC Peter et al., Veľká doba a jej dôsledky : Prešov v 20. rokoch 20. storočia (Gabriela Dudeková) S. 395
ROKOSKÝ Jaroslav, Rudolf Beran a jeho doba : Vzestup a pád agrární strany (Roman Holec) S. 397
MACH Alexander, Z ďalekých ciest (Anton Hruboň) S. 400
MERVART Jan, Naděje a iluze : Čeští a slovenští spisovatelé v reformním hnutí šedesátých let (Adam Hudek) S. 404
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK