Year: 2013, vol: 61, number: 4
OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Bratislavskí hostia v 13. storočí. Zvyky, právo a správa
(Bratislava Guests in the 13th Century. Customs, Law and Administration)
The study is concerned with the social and legal group in the Kingdom of Hungary called hospites (Guests), who formed a basic element in the emerging towns such as the one below Bratislava Castle. Using the written sources from the 13th century concerning Hungary and especially Bratislava, it presents the concepts of legal customs and privileges, which formed the main source of town law. The administrative and judicial position of the inhabitants of the complex below Bratislava Castle in the 13th century is considered. Attention is also devoted to the problem of municipal autonomy and the question of its position under the jurisdiction of the Sheriff of Bratislava before 1291.
Middle Ages. Bratislava. Guests. Burghers. Administration. Town Law. Customs.
Formovanie československej ekonomiky 1918 – 1920
(The Formation of the Czechoslovak Economy (1918 – 1920))
The Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed in October 1918. The new state united the Czech Lands, which had relatively well developed industry and agriculture, with backward mainly agrarian Slovakia. There were already ideas of territorial or political union of Slovakia and the Czech Lands in the period before the First World War. However, there was no definite “program” by which their economic unification could be more deeply considered. The need to work out a “program” to solve the problems connected with the adaptation of Slovakia and the Czech Lands to the new conditions in the economic field was not really felt even in the period immediately after the formation of the new state. The problems that began to appear in the running of the economy were mostly attributed to the transition from wartime conditions to peace, or to faults in the work of the bureaucracy. The post-war economic crisis brought a reversal of this view. The Slovak political representatives strove to use not only parliamentary, but also other means to pursue their demands. On the initiative of Slovak political circles, the activity of chambers of commerce and industry was revived, and the Central Association of Slovak Industry and various other institutions were established. However, their legal powers were limited, and so their activities were more or less limited to solving the current operational problems.
The Origin of Czechoslovakia. Unification of Slovakia with the Czech Lands. Economic Problems. the Post-War Economic Crisis.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Daňové povinnosti banského a mincového mesta Kremnica v stredoveku
(Tax Obligations of the Mining and Mint Town of Kremnica in the Middle Ages)
The first document relating to royal taxes of Kremnica dates from 1375 and mentions a sum of 600 “red” florins. Various documents from the reign of Sigismund record 300 gold florins paid twice a year. The Union of Central Slovak Mining Towns headed by Kremnica began to form from the end of the 14th century and to act together. In 1424, King Sigismund granted all the towns including Kremnica to his wife Queen Barbara, and from that time they paid their tax to the queen. As head of the Union, Kremnica was given responsibility for joint accounting at the beginning of the 16th century, but it probably already had this role from an earlier date. The mining towns paid the royal tax (taxa regia) jointly. In the documented years 1507-1518, Kremnica paid about a quarter (24.87 – 27.49%) of the tax or in absolute amounts 106 – 288.67 accounting florins. The reduction of the regular tax in comparison with the previous period can be explained by the raising of extraordinary, especially military taxes and the general impoverishment of the mining towns as a result of the declining profitability of mining. Complaints to the king about these problems were so frequent that in numerous cases taxes were not charged for long periods. The share and documentation of the regular taxes gradually declined in comparison with the irregular or special taxes (visit by monarch, military taxes – the so called subsidia etc). In these cases, the joint tax could reach several thousand florins. Kremnica’s share may have been about a quarter. As for military taxes (subsidia), the towns were often willing to pay only a small part of demanded sums. They attempted to negotiate with the king to gain a substantial reduction.
Middle Ages. Towns. Central Slovak Mining Towns. Taxes. Kremnica.
HOMZA Martin, O kráľovskom titule Svätopluka I. († 894) S. 655
STEINHÜBEL Ján, Bol alebo nebol Svätopluk kráľom? S. 671
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
ZUPKA Dušan, Rituály a symbolická komunikácia v stredovekej strednej Európe (Pavol Hudáček) S. 697
CSÁKY Moritz, Das Gedächtnis der Städte. Kulturelle Verflechtungen – Wien und die urbanen Milieus in Zentraleuropa (Elena Mannová) S. 700
MASKALÍK Alex, Elita armády. Československá vojenská generalita 1918 – 1992 (Peter Švorc) S. 703
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK