Das jüngste Heft der Zeitschrift „Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal“ (2014, Heft 1) ist ein von Meelis Friedenthal und Anu Lepp herausgegebenes englischsprachiges Themenheft zur Buchgeschichte Est- und Livlands in der Frühen Neuzeit: „Text and its materialities in early modern Estonia“. Wie alle Bände seit 2007 (<http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/EAA/issue/archive>), ist dieses Heft nicht nur gedruckt erhältlich, sondern auch kostenlos online zugänglich: <http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/EAA/issue/view/103>. Es enthält folgende Aufsätze:
Kurmo Konsa u. Tiiu Reimo:
Books as informational artefacts (S. 3–20)
ABSTRACT: The article focuses on the model based on the information levels of books as artefacts and the importance of information levels for preservation strategy. The historical and museological approaches to books as objects will be discussed. Books are artefacts just like any other objects made, modified, or used by human beings. Different authors have presented various approaches for describing the information architecture of artefacts. Th is study is based on a three-level model, according to which three different information levels are identified: structural information or structural properties; functional information or functional properties; context and the object’s relationship to it. Preservation is not a passive activity from the point of view of the information structure of the artefact. While choosing preservation strategies it is essential to consider the information structure of the artefact, especially when using information reformatting technologies, which create a new object with a specific information structure (photocopies, microforms, digitisation, etc.). The preservation of artefacts presumes the prior identification of the set of information to be preserved.
Meelis Friedenthal, Anu Lepp, Kurmo Konsa u. Kristjan Adojaan:
Early Estonian Printings Database and the Book Damage Atlas (S. 21–50)
ABSTRACT: This article provides an overview of the Early Estonian Printings (EEP) database and the Book Damage Atlas created within the framework of the Watermarks and Paper in Early Modern Estonia project and of questions that arose in the course of the project. The aim of the project was to consider publications as a whole and to try to combine descriptions of different parts of books into a tool for researchers that is readily available and easy to use. The compilers of the EEP database have relied on the standard worked out by the International Association of Paper Historians (IPH) in their descriptions of paper and watermarks and have also added free-form descriptions of watermarks to the database. Entries in the database are tied in with databases of the European-wide Bernstein watermarks portal The Memory of Paper.
The historian and the printing press in early modern Estland and Livland (S. 51–84)
ABSTRACT: Print culture and printing presses became available to history writers in Estland and Livland in two different waves. The use of printed books and the idea of having their own work printed emerged in the mid- and latter sixteenth century. This was affected by the Livonian War and greater interest in the area. The books were printed in Central Europe where a handful of printing centres dominated printing. Printing presses were established when different educational institutions were founded or in the case of Riga and Narva when demand in the city became large enough to support a local printer. Even when local printers were available, historians more often used printed books made available simultaneously with circulating manuscripts. Although local history was available in manuscript form, the printed histories of Balthasar Russow, Salomon Henning and Laurentius Müller were very influential. The larger variety of printed sources changed the way history was written. It now included the mentioning of the area by classical authors, discussions on the origins of the local inhabitants, and the gothic historiography of the early medieval period. Authors used newspapers and pamphlets to write about contemporary events. Some authors such as Friedrich Menius and Paul Einhorn had their shorter works printed by local printers but their longer full chronicles were either left in manuscript form or printed in Germany.
The first year of the Academia Gustaviana print shop as seen through the history of paper (S. 85–114)
ABSTRACT: Watermarks and paper evidence are useful tools for researching manuscripts as well as printed books on paper, and not only for dating and identifying authenticity, but for studying the history of documents and printed books as material objects themselves. The present paper is based on the publications printed in Tartu in 1632, the first year of operation of the Swedish-era University of Tartu print shop, and the paper used in them. The purpose is to study the watermarks gathered from all survived copies of publications deposited in Estonia, to discuss the possible origins of the paper and the principles for its acquisition and use, and to draw some conclusions concerning general conditions of printing and the printer’ personal contacts and preferences during the early days of the print shop.
Pietist tracts in Swedish, printed at Reval/Tallinn in the early eighteenth century: background and bibliographical career (S. 115–135)
ABSTRACT: Between 1718 and 1726, the printer Johann Köhler at Reval/Tallinn produced about seventeen fairly small books of pietist persuasion in Swedish. It has generally been assumed that these books were meant to be smuggled into Sweden and Finland where the authorities would not allow the printing of such literature. Furthermore, bibliographers have attributed some other books of that ilk, but not indicating the printer, to Köhler. The article, firstly, shows what is known about the provenance of the extant copies. This suggests that the books might not have been produced for the Swedish and Finnish markets in the first place but rather for readers in Estonia and Russia. Secondly, the article argues, primarily on typographical grounds, that the attributions are unfounded. They were probably made because collectors since the eighteenth century had cherished books suppressed by the authorities as rare books. These attributions have been repeated and added to by generations of bibliographers and scholars. The author calls for a critical reassessment of attributions, not only in the Reval case but also concerning more important centres of clandestine publishing such as Amsterdam. The article concludes with a bibliography of Köhler’s books published in Swedish, including the attributed titles.
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