OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
TACHIAOS Antonios E.
Cyrilometodské dedičstvo a jeho odkaz svetu Slovanov
(The Message of the Cyrillo-Methodian Legacy to the World of Slavs)
The paper is concerned with the contribution of the mission of the Thessalonian brothers Constantine (Cyril) and Methodius for the Slavonic world in terms of three important points: 1) The brothers Cyril and Methodius worked in the Slavonic world as mediators of the cultural values of the Byzantine Empire. 2) They created not only a means of expression in the form of writing, but also a literary language that had not existed before. 3) They created all the conditions necessary for the free development of national Slavonic cultural life and for the formation of the self-consciousness necessary for its continuation. These three points express not only the contribution of Cyril and Methodius to the development of the culture and national consciousness of the Slavs, but also the cultural message of Byzantium to the Slavs.
Thessalonian brothers, Constantine (Cyril), Methodius, Slavs, Byzantine culture, Writing, Glagolitic, Cyrilic, National consciousness, Cultural self-sufficiency.
Eliáš Berger (1562 – 1644), cisársky historiograf a poeta laureatus
(Eliáš Berger (1562 – 1644), imperial historian and poet laureate)
Eliáš Berger (1552 Brezno – 1644 Skalica) from Grünberg worked as a historian at the courts of the Emperor Rudolf II and later of Mathias II of Habsburg. He also engaged in politics. Great socio-political interest in support for the Archduke Mathias and his power-political ambitions with the aim of calming and improving the domestic situation and strengthening pro-national feelings in the Kingdom of Hungary united various representatives of the aristocratic families and important humanists at the beginning of the 17th century. Berger cooperated in these aims with his literary work, together with Stephen Ilesházi and Peter Révai. The literary output of Eliáš Berger from 1600 – 1638 is remarkable. He wrote 20 larger works as well as shorter literary texts. Above all, he helped to influence political and social developments with his historical and political writing.
Eliáš Berger, Historian, Poet, Humanism and the Renaissance, Territory of Slovakia, Austria, Czech Lands, Germany.
Konfesionálne zmiešané manželstvá v Uhorsku. Právne normy a sociálna prax do roku 1848
(Confessionally mixed marriages. Legal norms and social practice in the Kingdom of Hungary up to 1848)
The aim of the study is to present the development of ecclesiastical and civil legal norms regulating the conclusion of mixed marriages and the question of the religious allegiance of children in the Kingdom of Hungary. It analyses the interventions
of the state authorities and the Catholic Church in the period from the middle of the 18th century to the revolution of 1848. Joseph II’s ecclesiastical policies created
a new legal framework in which the interests and aims of the state and the Catholic Church began to diverge. During the Napoleonic Wars and especially in the reform period, mixed marriages became a subject of politicization and struggle between the liberal opposition and the conservative pro-government group supported by the Catholic hierarchy. The study also includes a sounding into the discourse of the time and analyses representative texts of both Catholic and Protestant origin. In the final part, the author considers the social strategies developed in confessionally mixed local communities in reaction to the disciplinary pressure from the authorities.
Confessionally mixed marriages, Kingdom of Hungary, Josephinism, Ecclesiastical
norms, Social norms, Reverses, Reform period.
PÁL Judit – HOLEC Roman
Dvaja vysokí štátni úradníci – dva integračné pokusy – dve „imperiálne kariéry“? (knieža Karl Schwarzenberg a gróf Emanuel Péchy v Sedmohradsku)
(Two high state officials – two integration attempts – two “imperial careers”? (Prince Karl Schwarzenberg and Count Emanuel Péchy in Transylvania))
The struggle over Transylvania between the Hungarian political elites and the central state authorities in Vienna had various forms in the period starting with the revolution of 1848-49. The incorporation of Transylvania into the Kingdom of Hungary or the opposite process of its direct administration by Vienna represented competing integration projects. They were promoted by various high state officials, usually representatives of the aristocracy and high ranking army officers. Their life stories and careers are a good example for the statement that behind the top politicians was a large group of loyal bureaucrats, who served the regime, joined one regime with the next and kept the whole system running. It was not always a matter of the most important personalities, but their careers as loyal bureaucrats may supplement and clarify the overall picture of the Empire and the collected biographies of officials may contribute to clarifying the mechanisms of its functioning. The study devotes detailed attention to various generals and aristocratic officials, especially to two of the most typical of the representatives placed in charge of Transylvania: Prince Karl von Schwarzenberg and Count Emanuel Péchy. The route from the pre-modern to the modern state was characterized by continuity and effective bureaucratic and military control over its own territory, in this case over Transylvania.
Habsburg Monarchy, Kingdom of Hungary and Transylvania, Integration attempts (1848 – 1876), High state officials, Official careers, Karl von Schwarzenberg, Emanuel Péchy.
Limity a hranice cestnej dopravy v 40. rokoch 20. storočia na Slovensku
(The limits and frontiers of road transport in 1940s Slovakia)
The study maps the development of road transport in 1940s Slovakia. It traces the construction of the road infrastructure, legislative changes concerning transport and their impact on motorists. The government regulated transport by means of various licences. The paper analyses the development of the car industry, exports, prices and the accessibility of cars for the general public. It considers safety and accident prevention. In many parts of the study, the author attempts to compare road transport in Slovakia and the Czech Lands. In this way, he gives a more realistic and comprehensive picture of the state of motorization in this period.
Transport, Cars, Slovakia, Roads, Fuel for vehicles, Motoring legislation, Accident rate.
Zákoník práce z roku 1965 – základ československého pracovního práva ve druhé polovině minulého století
(The Labour Code of 1965 – the basis of Czechoslovak labour legislation in the second half of last century)
The study is devoted to the development of Czechoslovak labour legislation in the second half of last century. It traces the form and practical application of the basic legal norm – the Labour Code from 1965. It points to the economic and political causes of the most important changes and the impact of the adopted measures on the application of the code in practice. Apart from all the unrealized projects from the period of the renewal process and the post-November legislation, the study directs its attention especially to the characteristics of the three main amendments to the Labour Code during the Normalization period, which the author designates as the normalizing (1969), amending (1975) and reforming (1988) changes. The author endeavours to observe that the development of the legal norms connected with the labour process, the motivation for introducing particular amendments, problems with the implementation of some ideas, conflicting views and difficulties with the application of some adopted measures significantly contributed to the atmosphere of the time. These problems reflected the individual phases of the development of Czechoslovak or Czech and Slovak society in the second half of last century.
Czechoslovakia, Labour legislation, Labour code, Renewal process, Normalization.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Pět let Ivana Krna jako vyslance v Nizozemsku (1934-1938). Příspěvek k vzájemným vztahům Československa a Nizozemska
(Ivan Krno’s five years as ambassador in the Netherlands (1934 – 1938). A contribution to relations between Czechoslovakia and the Netherlands)
The study is concerned with Ivan Krno’s time in the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1934 to 1938 as Czechoslovak Ambassador. During this period, he participated in several important events in relations between the two countries. These included conclusion of a commercial agreement in 1934, signing of a cultural agreement between Czechoslovakia and the Netherlands in 1937 and the reopening of the restored chapel in the Walloon Church in Naarden with the grave of Jan Amos Comenius. He significantly participated in the life of the Czechoslovak community in the Netherlands and in the activities of the Netherlands – Czechoslovak Society, which supported cultural links between the two states.
Ivan Krno, Czechoslovak – Netherlands relations, Netherlands.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
ULIČNÝ Ferdinand, Toponymum Slovensko – pôvod a obsah názvu S. 545
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
KOVÁČ Dušan a kol., Sondy do slovenských dejín v dlhom 19. storočí (Elena Mannová) S. 555
KÁZMEROVÁ Ľubica a kol., Premeny v školstve a vzdelávaní na Slovensku (1918 – 1945) (Anna Bocková) S. 559
PODOLSKÝ Peter B., Povstanie roku 1944. Bolo národné, slávne, užitočné? (Anton Hruboň) S. 561
MICHÁLEK Slavomír – LONDÁK Miroslav a kol., Gustáv Husák. Moc politiky. Politik moci (Ivan Kamenec) S. 564
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK