OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Obraz vlkolaka v stredovekej literatúre
(The image of the werewolf in medieval literature)
The subject of the study is the transformation of humans into wolves in medieval chivalric romances, rhymed tales (lais), educational works, Norse sagas, Russian literature and Serbian folk songs. The medieval idea of a werewolf was anatomically an ordinary wolf, but it retained human memory, mind, habits and upbringing. People, almost always men, became wolves either voluntarily with help from magic, wolf skin or enchanted objects such as rings, or involuntarily when somebody cursed or betrayed them. In medieval chivalrous literature, the traitor was always a woman, either a malicious wife or jealous step-mother. One of the conditions for a werewolf’s return to human form was clothes, a motif already found in the antiquity. Werewolves with cyclical transformations hid their clothes, because without them they would remain wolves until the end of their lives. The details of transformation into wolves in the Primary Chronicle, Russian heroic poems (byliny) or Serbian folklore are not known, but the circumstances indicate that this ability was attributed to wizards and heroes.
Werewolf. Wolf. Middle Ages. Literature. Transformation. Lycanthropy.
Reforma rehoľných inštitúcií v kontexte cirkevných reforiem Márie Terézie
(The reform of monastic institutions in the context of the ecclesiastical reforms of Maria Theresa)
The study is concerned with the reform of monastic institutions in the reign of Maria Theresa. The first part traces the process of formation of the ecclesiastical policy of the Vienna court, its leading figures and the currents of thought that inspired it. The second part is directed towards the specific measures by the state, which changed the position of the monastic communities in society.
Maria Theresa. Joseph II. The Enlightenment. Ecclesiastical reforms. Reform of the monasteries.
HALLON Ľudovít – SCHVARC Michal
Predstavy, realita a medzinárodný kontext sociálneho štátu v Slovenskej republike 1939 – 1945
(Ideas, reality and the international context of the social state in the Slovak Republic of 1939-1945)
The conservative forces in the Slovak society of the first half of the 20th century sought models in Christian solidarity and the corporate state, which would replace parliamentarism of the Western type. The ideas could be put into practice after the seizure of power in autumn 1938 and especially after Slovakia became indepen-dent in March 1939. However, the ally of independent Slovakia, Nazi Germany rejected the corporate state. Therefore, the idea of Christian solidarity was replaced with the idea of Slovak national socialism and plans for a corporate social system for the Slovak working community according to the German model. The regime of the Slovak Republic of 1939 – 1945 attempted to put the new principles of the social state into economic and social practice. However, the implementation of the ideas of the time about a social state and the political system of Slovakia stopped half way.
Christianity. Solidarity. Encyclicals. Socialism. Nationalism. Parliamentarism. Political system. Trade unions. State. Regulation. Measures.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
SAVIĆ Zvezdan – ZDRAVKOVIĆ Danijela – ŠILJAK Violeta
Sokolstvo ako model interkulturálnej spolupráce
(The “Sokol” movement as a model of intercultural cooperation)
This paper is based on the analysis of cultural cooperation between the Serbian and Czech nations in terms of theoretical observations of cultural characteristics of the Sokol movement or social organization that emerged in the early twentieth century along with the process of national awakening of the Slavic peoples, and contemporary trends that initiated its renewal in Serbia. The Sokol movement was a Slavonic national organization, with societies in all Slavic countries. The Sokol movement’s task was to educate its members in the spiritual and national unity of their body, guided by the principles of morality, ethics, aesthetics and democracy in terms of ideas, set by its founder Miroslav Tyrs. The idea of Tyrs’ Sokol movement could be defined as the whole idea of comprehensive education of individuals, covering both their spiritual and physical activities in accordance with the characteristics derived from a synthesis of national feelings, cultural cooperation, harmony, and the height of one‘s ideals. The Czech Sokol movement was an expression of the national resistance and unity of all Slavs. The Serbian Sokol movement strove to equate Sokol thinking with Serbian ideas of the liberation, unity and progress of the whole Serbian nation. The Sokol movement constituted part of the rich cultural traditions of the Czech and Serbian peoples. Theoretically, the outcome of the work would be reflected in the form of descriptions of the origin, dynamics and effects of the Slavonic association of two cultures through the Sokol movement. At the same time we must not lose sight of the fact that theoretical observations can be a significant advantage but not a sufficient condition for the successful consideration of the studied effects of cultural cooperation between the Serbian and Czech nations.
Sokol movement. Culture. Cooperation. Serbian society.
K problematike definície pojmu fašizmus, „nového konsenzu“ a vývoja v bádaní o fašizme
(On the problem of defining fascism, the “new consensus” and the development in fascist studies)
Slovak historiography has been stubbornly ignoring the progress that has been made in fascist studies in recent years. This article seeks to provide an overview of the development in comparative fascist studies, with an emphasis on the “new consensus” historians. The main focus is on Roger Griffin’s definition of fascism as a genus of political ideology, whose mythic core in its various permutations is a palingenetic form of populist ultranationalism. This article also argues that, if properly used, Griffin’s definition can provide a valuable heuristic tool for recognizing and analysing fascist movements.
Fascism. New consensus. Fascist studies. Historiography.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
SCHLEIFF Hartmut – KONEČNÝ Peter et al, Staat, Bergbau und Bergakademie (Miroslav Lacko) S. 719
JABLONICKÝ Tomáš, Profesor August Miřička. Memorabilia iuridica sb. 7 (Katarína Zavacká) S. 723
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK