OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Štátne financie habsburskej monarchie a uhorská meď v období vojny o rakúske dedičstvo. Štát kontra súkromní ťažiari
(The state finances of the Habsburg Monarchy and Hungarian copper in the period of the War of the Austrian Succession.The state against private producers)
From the introduction of a state monopoly on copper at the end of the 17th century to its end in the mid 19th century, the history of copper ore mining in the Kingdom of Hungary and especially in the Spiš – Gemer mining region was marked by an ambivalent relationship between the state and private producers. It was no accident that this ambivalence appeared most strongly in the Spiš – Gemer region, because the greater part of production was in private hands here, and in the first half of the 18th century, this mountainous region gained first place in the production of copper in Hungary. During the troubled times of the financially exhausting War of the Austrian Succession (1740 – 1748), the relationship of the private Spiš – Gemer copper producers to the state was strained, because the payments for the purchase of copper were seriously delayed and the claims of the producers on the state grew from month to month. The representatives of the state chamber and mining administration reflected the needs of the producers, but state interests had priority, especially the current power-political and military priorities of the Monarchy.
State finances. Habsburg Monarchy. Mining. Copper trade. Private producers. State debt.
Variácie na zachovanie stavu. O uhorských krajinských snemoch 19. storočia
(Variations on maintaining the status quo. On the Hungarian Parliament in the 19th century)
The study is devoted to analysis of the defence of noble privileges and the position of the Hungarian nobility on the floor of parliament in relation to the monarch’s powers at the beginning of the 19th century. It analyses the discussions of various parliaments, especially on questions of property rights and the related rights to political representation, equality before the law, land tax and the bearing of public burdens. It examines the detailed argumentation and use of older legislation, as well as proposals for its use in favour of modernization (J. Hajnóczy, G. Berzeviczy). Special attention is devoted to the question of finance for the army, in relation to the traditional system of military service (insurrection). The author states that the achievement of change in the framework of the Hungarian constitutional system was not excluded, but the parliaments of the early 19th century did not set themselves such aims.
Hungary. Parliament. 18th/19th Century. Nobility. Taxation.
„Na kriedlach slovanského citu zaletel roku 1915 do Srbska na pomoc Srbom“. Symbolická inštrumentalizácia M. R. Štefánika a slovanská vzájomnosť na pozadí dobových medzištátnych vzťahov
(“He flew on wings of Slavonic feeling to Serbia to help the Serbs in 1915”. The symbolic instrumentalization of M.R. Štefánik and Slavonic community against the background of the inter-state relations of the time)
The study analyses the symbolic instrumentalization of the national hero M.R. Štefánik in the context of the modified form of Slavonic community in the 20th century. In the inter-war period, the symbol of Štefánik was used to strengthen the Czechoslovak – Yugoslav alliance on the basis of Slavonic brotherhood. The political representatives of independent Slovakia and Croatia during the Second World War refused to build their inter-state relations on the basis of Slavonic community. From the point of view of Zagreb, Štefánik appeared pro-Serb and pro-Yugoslav, so he was an undesirable symbol for the Croats. Emphasis on the strong Slavonic and Serbophil identity of Štefánik became an instrument for Slovak opposition oriented circles to articulate their resistance to the Ľudák regime and the Slovak state.
Symbol. Slavonic reciprocity. Serbophilism. Czechoslovak-Yugoslav alliance. Milan Rastislav Štefánik. Slavko Kvaternik.
Sociálny štát a sociálna politika v Československu v rokoch 1945 – 1948.Politika zamestnanosti – strategický pilier spoločnosti
(The social state and social policy in Czechoslovakia in the period 1945 – 1948.Employment policy – a strategic pillar of society)
Security, employment opportunities, just reward, basic social incomes and social services for all were attributes of the modern social state, which emerged after the Second World War. This phenomenon did not concern only the Czechoslovak Republic, but almost the whole of Europe. However, its theories were already conceived and worked out in detail during the war. The model of the social state came from Great Britain, which the government of the post-war Czechoslovak Republic reflected. The Košice Government Programme agreed between the Slovak and Czech sides, already promised a generous social policy and social care for all groups of working people. The new concept of social policy was based on universalism and a system of full employment secured by nationalization, state regulation of the market and state organization of labour. Employment and social security policy were among its most important priorities. The study is concerned with employment policy and in its framework, I devote attention to the problems of management of labour, inclusion of women in employment, protection and security for workers, the wage system and standard of living of the workers.
The social state. Social policy. Employment policy. Management of labour.
RADU Sorin – BUDEANCĂ Cosmin – SOLOMON Flavius
The “Comrades”, Propaganda and the Collectivization of Agriculture in Eastern Europe. The Ploughmen’s Front in Romania
The Soviet experience between 1920 and 1930 helped the leaders of the Eastern European communist states in the late 1940s and early 1950s to adopt complex strategies in order to attract the widest possible segment of the population possible to the new regime’s side, or to at least ensure a neutral attitude from the part of the most important social categories, such as the peasants. The active presence in the rural world of political organizations which were formally autonomous but closely linked to the communist parties customized the collectivization of Eastern European states to the Soviet Union, where the massive collectivization was done under the supervision of the Communist Party exclusively. Another feature, illustrated on the basis of this case study is that, considering the Soviet experience, the Communist parties from Eastern Europe used propaganda in the process of collectivization of agriculture. The Ploughmen’s Front represented the strongest and oldest front organization comrade of the Romanian Communist Party. The main task of this organization was to implement the Communist ideology in the country-side, facilitating the process of communization of the Romanian villages, where the Communists were extremely unpopular. The article focuses on the manner in which the Ploughmen’s Front was involved in the collectivization of agriculture in Romania.
Romania. Cadres. Ploughmen. Communization. Countryside. Comrades.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Pohled na konkláve a volbu papeže Pia XI. z československé perspektivy
(The conclave and election of Pope Pius XI as a significant milestone in Czechoslovak-Vatican relations)
The study The conclave and election of Pope Pius XI as a significant milestone in Czechoslovak-Vatican relations focuses on the last weeks of the pontificate of Benedict XV and the first weeks of the pontificate of Pius XI in the context of the dynamic development in post-war Europe. The author analyses the personalities of the two popes, their spiritual and political actions. His main interest reflects the period from mid-January to mid-February 1922, when Pope Benedict XV died, his funeral was held and the new assembly of cardinals me to choose his successor from among them. It was Pius XI who became the new Pope and carried on the policies of his predecessor, but he performed favourably against the two factions in the college of cardinals, liberal and conservative. His election was received with some trepidation in postwar Europe, but the course of subsequent events confirmed his heading. The Pope’s first steps were directed towards opening up the Church, both in the form of missions in Africa and in the Eucharistic Congress in Rome. The Pope’s criticism of the authoritarian and totalitarian movements resulted in the publication of numerous encyclicals in the 1930s, from which the most significant are undoubtedly Mit brennender Sorge and Divini Redemptoris from 1937. Pope Pius XI is today considered one of the most important popes of the 20th century.
Conclave. Election of the Pope. Benedict XV. Pius XI. Czechoslovakia 1918-1938.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
DVOŘÁKOVÁ Daniela, Barbora Celjská. Čierna kráľovná. Životný príbeh uhorskej, rímsko-nemeckej a českej kráľovnej 1391 – 1451 (Ján Lukačka) S. 151
DUCHOŇOVÁ Diana, Palatín Mikuláš Esterházy a jeho dvor. Spoločnosť, normy, rituály každodennosti (Frederik Federmayer) S. 152
SZEKRÉNYESSI Attila, História Prešova v obrázkoch / Eperjes tőrténete képekben (Peter Švorc) S. 155
BUDIL Ivo T., Úsvit rasismu (Milan Hrabovský) S. 160
BYSTRICKÝ Valerián, Zahraničnopolitické súvislosti vzniku Slovenského štátu 14. marca 1939 (Pavol Petruf) S. 164
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK