Year: 2015, vol: 63, number: 2
OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Karol I. a mestá
(Charles I and towns)
The study examines certain elements of the policy of King Charles I concerning towns. The king issued almost 150 charters concerning more than fifty towns between 1310 and 1342. The analysis of these charters leads to the conclusion that during the reign of Charles I of Hungary the practice of donating privileges to the communities of hospites had two types following the pattern developed in the 13th century: some received the totality of privileges (towns), while others were only granted parts of them (free villages). However, it can also be noticed that from the second half of his reign new elements appear in Charles‘s policy. He also gave privileges to settlements owed by landlords, and, at the same time, the notion of a town involved it being fortified more often than before. It is worth noting that Charles I never granted the full privilege of a town to settlements in the northeastern part of Hungary, in Transylvania or in Slavonia. The reason for this is that these regions formed the three biggest honours of Charles‘s kingdom. The owner received all the royal revenues of the territory of the honour including those of the free villages. It was not in the interest of Charles I, whose system of government relied much on the services of the honours, to decrease the income of the honours.
King Charles I (1301–1342). Policy concerning towns. System of government.
Štátne financie habsburskej monarchie a uhorská meď v období vojny o rakúske dedičstvo. Na ceste k novým kontraktom
(The state finances of the Habsburg Monarchy and Hungarian copper in the period of the War of the Austrian Succession. On the way to new contracts)
The author outlines the basic developmental trends in the production of Hungarian copper and its key problems in the researched period of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740 – á1748), which led to the signing of new basic contracts concerning trade in Hungarian copper. The author analyses the mechanisms for managing mine and metal production on the level of the whole Monarchy and precisely in this period of basic reform of economic administration. The real profit to the state from mining comprised those items that the copper fund (Kupferfundum) and state mining enterprises recorded as liabilities or obligations, which commercial partners regularly provided to the state as loan capital. Payment of such debts represented one of the main external problems of the state mining enterprise and maintenance of the state monopoly on copper with its purchase from private producers in the Spiš – Gemer mining region, where the debts also gradually increased, formed a further – internal problem in state enterprise. In the period of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740 – 1748), these two factors seriously affected the development of the whole Hungarian copper industry. This finally led to the managing officials finding a strategic partner for the marketing of copper in the form of the banking house of Jakob Küner von Künersberg and Ján Goll.
State finances. Habsburg Monarchy. Mining, Exporting of copper. Hamburg. War of the Austrian Succession. Early modern. European banking houses.
PETRANSKÁ ROLKOVÁ Natália
Obnovenie Matice slovenskej roku 1919 a jej ďalšie smerovanie
(The revival of Matica Slovenská in 1919 and its further development)
The study considers the revival of an important cultural institution in the period after the formation of the 1. Czechoslovak Republic, outlining the internal political and organizational circumstances that preceded it. It is directed towards analysis of the subsequent building up and activity of Matica Slovenská in the specific social situation of the first steps of this “revived” institution, its cooperation with other organizations and the constituting of its new institutional structures – leadership, administration and committee – and practical activities – local branches, scientific and artistic departments.
Matica Slovenská. Czechoslovak Republic. Slovak – Czech relations. Minority problem. American Slovaks.
TIŠLIAR Pavol – ŠPROCHA Branislav
Zaznávaný a nepoznaný cenzus 1919 či len kuriozita?
(The disregarded and unknown census of 1919, or only a curiosity?)
The paper is concerned with the extraordinary census of the population of Slovakia, carried out in 1919 with the aim of supporting the Czechoslovak peace delegation in Paris with data on the ethnic structure of the population. The study analyses selected parts of the preparation, course and publication of the data from this preliminary census with an emphasis mainly on the organizational aspect. In the conclusion, the authors attempt to outline the significance of the 1919 census as a historical source and evaluate the possibilities for its use.
1919 Census. Inter-war period. Slovakia.
Gustáv Husák – prvý tajomník ÚV KSČ (1969 – 1970)
(Gustáv Husák – First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1969 – 1970))
The study analyses the political decisions of Gustáv Husák from his election to the position of first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia in April 1969 until December 1970. On basis of the original sources, it evaluates the development, in which important normalization measures were applied in the political leadership of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. The position on the so-called anti-socialist forces in the Communist party, rehabilitations, expulsion from the Communist Party, the policy of the “ultra-leftist forces” and evaluation of the developments before and after January 1968 were changed. G. Husák’s Normalization policy was carried out under pressure from Moscow, which supported the domestic conservative forces.
Gustáv Husák. Normalization. Presidium of the Central Committees of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and Communist Party of Slovakia. Ultra-leftist forces in the CPC. Expulsion from the CPC in 1970.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
MIKULÁŠOVÁ Alena – PALÁRIK Miroslav
Nitrianske kiná v období druhej svetovej vojny
(The Nitra cinema during the Second World War)
During the war years 1939 – 1945, films were a popular way of spending free time and escaping from everyday reality. They were not only a means of entertainment, thanks to them it was possible to present a specific message to the general public, and they were misused for political, ideological and propaganda purposes. In this period, cinemas showed anti-Semitic films, full of xenophobic ideas, films celebrating the German army and “Aryan ideals”, but also films offering simple entertainment. The financial and creative potential of the Slovak Republic was limited, so the demand for films was supplemented by pictures distributed from abroad. As a result of the political and military situation, German films predominated in Slovakia. Using the example of the town of Nitra, the study presents information about films shown in a middle sized Slovak town, analysing their origin, genre, message and price. It gives information about visits to the cinema as one of the possibilities for spending free time, as well as about efforts to politically exploit them.
Nitra. Cinema. Film screenings. 1939 – 1945. Film production.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Československé veľvyslanectvo v Budapešti v kontexte maďarskej revolúcie roku 1956
(The Czechoslovak Embassy in Budapest in the context of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956)
The article analyses the situation at the Czechoslovak Embassy in Budapest during the Hungarian Revolution of autumn 1956. Most of the information comes from the telegrams exchanged between the Budapest representatives and the Foreign Ministry in Prague. The apparatus of notes not only gives the archive sources, but all explanatory information on individual persons and events.
Hungarian Revolution of 1956. The year 1956. Štefan Major. Czechoslovak Embassy in Budapest. Diplomatic relations with Hungary. Communism. Counter-revolution.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
LYSÝ Miroslav, I Svätopluk zaslúžil sa o slovenský štát“. Používanie stredovekých symbolov v 20. a 21. storočí S. 333
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
NIŽŇANSKÝ Eduard / HRABOVSKÝ Milan, Rasizmus, antisemitizmus, holokaust (anticiganizmus) (Jarmila Švihranová) S. 347
STOLARIK M. Mark, Where is my home? Slovak immigration to North America (1870 – 2010) (Matej Hanula) S. 350
Rozpad Uhorska a Trianonská mierová zmluva. K politikám pamäti na Slovensku a v Maďarsku (Natália Krajčovičová) S. 354
HAHNOVÁ Eva, Od Palackého k Benešovi. Německé texty o Češích, Němcích a českých zemích (Bohumila Ferenčuhová) S. 359
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK