Year: 2015, vol: 63, number: 3
OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Vpády Avarov na balkánske územia Východorímskej ríše v rokoch 582 – 626
(The Avar invasions of the Balkan territories of the East Roman Empire in the period 582 – 626)
In this study, the author analyses the Avar invasions of the Balkan territories of the East Roman Empire from the accession of the Emperor Maurice (582-602) to the great siege of Constantinople in 626. He directs his attention to the story of these campaigns and their dating, but especially to the military aspects of the Avar invasions in connection with the changing political positions of the two sides – the Avar Kaganate and the East Roman Empire with their different military-political priorities.
Military history. Late Antique Balkans. Avars. East Roman Empire. Emperor Maurice. Lower Danube defensive system. Theophylaktos Simokattes. Balkan towns and fortresses in Late Antiquity.
Sloboda tlače v uhorskom neskoroosvietenskom diskurze
(Freedom of the press in Hungarian Late Enlightenment discourse)
The study analyses the socio-political discourse about freedom of the press in the Kingdom of Hungary in the context of the 1790–1791 parliament and the work of the commission for public and political affairs on the preparation of legislation on freedom of the press in the period 1791 – 1794. Against the background of Hungarian constitutionalism, it notices the opposition and argumentation of Hungarian county authorities concerning decrees on the closure of private printing presses. It analyses further philosophical, religious and political considerations, in order to point out their context in the philosophy of the European Enlightenment, the concept of the social contract, the French revolution and its liberal ideas. It shows how the concept of the nation and the development of its culture as an expression of Hungarian nationalism was brought into these considerations, and that the intensive debate on freedom of the press and expression had no impact on the growing pressure of censorship as an expression of a weakened political power.
Freedom of the press. Freedom of thought. Censorship. Enlightenment. Liberalism. Kingdom of Hungary. Law.
Agrarismus mezi láskou k rodné hroudě a politické moci
(Agrarianism: Between a Love of the Native Land and a Will to Political power)
The phenomenon of agrarianism extends over a whole range of positions and expressions from a purely emotional relationship to the land, through the relationships of various social groups to the land as a productive resource, up to a political ideology. The study is directed towards seeking the moment of rebirth of agrarianism as a political strategy, and identifying the three factors (political, economic and national), which changed the ideal of the relationship to the native soil into the strategy of a specific political group on the way to political and economic power. The conclusion of the study considers the results of this transformation not only in party politics, but above all in the actual concept of agrarianism as age-old love of the “native soil”.
Agrarianism. Agrarian Party. Political Party System. Land Reform. Political Strategy. Transformation of Political Strategy. Czechoslovakia. Central and Eastern Europe.
Príspevok k poznaniu urbanoným Bratislavy v kontexte ideológie národného socializmu a komunizmu v rokoch 1939 – 1989
(A contribution to understanding the historical meaning of Bratislava urbanonyms in the context of the national socialist and communist ideologies during the period 1939–1989)
The article mainly deals with the urbanonymy of the capital of Slovakia – Bratislava in the period 1939–1989. The accent is on the hierarchy of the street network, where we can define various ideological views of the governments on social and historical events, which influenced the political development of the territory in the local or national contexts. The work mostly deals with the practical possibilities of the analysis of urbanonyms and their interpretation, which may be interesting in the field of history, ethnology, anthropology and geography. During the period 1939–1945 also known as the first Slovak Republic, a puppet state of Nazi Germany, a lot of foreign (German and Austrian origin) place-names were introduced. After February 1948 known in Communist historiography as the „Victorious February“, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia with Soviet backing, assumed control over the government of the state. Many urbanonyms were replaced by names of Soviet or Russian origin. The purpose of our study is a reflection of the historical identity of the Bratislava old town. Study of urbanonymy, or renaming in space and time led to the conclusion, that the place names reflect the shared history, culture and political processes in the wider region of Eastern Europe.
Urbanonymy. Slovakia. Place names. Ideology. Historical context.
Členstvo, organizačná štruktúra a vývoj v KSS počas roka 1948
(The membership, organizational structure and development of the Communist Party of Slovakia during 1948)
After February 1948, the Communist Party of Slovakia (CPS) began to change from a party struggling for power into a party that had taken power and was beginning to apply it. There was mass recruitment of members already by the end of February 1948, and this process further intensified in the following months. Tens of thousands of people joined the CPS, some of them motivated by profit-seeking or fear of possible persecution. The party apparatus grew and gradually took over real power, so that the state organs became secondary. Mass recruitment also brought many negative features and after a few months, it became a subject of criticism, especially from the Soviet side. Therefore, by the beginning of summer, mass recruitment stopped and the policy of the regime gradually changed as a result of international political factors. The dissatisfaction of part of the domestic population from summer 1948 also contributed to the introduction of sharp persecution of real or potential opponents of the Communist Party. The official merging of the Communist Party of Slovakia and the Czech Communist Party was prepared within the ruling party in this period and carried out in autumn 1948. The CPS ceased to exist as an independent party. The same period brought the introduction of various laws that later became symbols of the crimes of the communist regime.
Communist Party of Slovakia. Membership. Mass recruitment. Resolution of the Informbyra. Viliam Široký. Expulsion from the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Sharp course.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
K identifikácii protikomunistického odboja na Slovensku (o interpretačnom labyrinte jeho historickej, právnej a spoločenskej roviny)
(On identification of the anti-communist struggle in Slovakia (the interpretative labyrinth of its historical, legal and social levels))
The paper indirectly continues the discussion on the pages of the Historical Journal on the relationship between history and politics against the background of identification of the anti-communist struggle in Slovakia after 1989. In the introduction, the author points to the frivolous manipulation of the terms anti-communist struggle or fighter in social and historical discourse, which was also reflected in the so-called memory legislation in Slovakia. Vague use of terminology in the memory legislation created a dangerous precedent, which enables the granting of the now positive status of anti-communist fighter also to members of pro-Nazi repressive military units operating in Slovakia after the outbreak of the Slovak National Uprising, and to open supporters of the other Ľudák totalitarian regime. The paper documents the complexity of the problem in the framework of a comparative approach, with regard to the disputes on the theme of the anti-communist struggle in the Czech Republic, where discussion strikes against similar problems to those in Slovakia, but the interpretation and methodology is undoubtedly a step more advanced. The author does not end his considerations with unambiguous conclusions. Instead of this, he outlines the more widely conceived fields of discussion, through which a polemical dialogue needs to be carried on in his view.
Anti-communist struggle. Communism in Slovakia. Memory legislation. Historical memory. Discussion of the past.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Urbanistický a demografický vývoj podhradia/mesta Bratislavy od privilégia 1291 do konca 14. storočia
(The urban and demographic development of the settlement below the castle and the town of Bratislava from the charter of 1291 to the end of the 14th century)
The study offers a review of the urban development of the settlement below Brati-slava Castle from the mid 12th century. It analyses the oldest tax register for the town of Bratislava (1378), which includes only taxpayers from the suburbs and provides data about the social, employment and topographic structure of the surroundings of the town. On the basis of comparison with the tax registers from 1434 and 1453/4, the study shows the development of the inner town and suburbs.
Bratislava. Middle Ages. Tax registers. Demography. Social structure.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
NOVOTNÝ Lukáš – KODET Roman, Velká Británie a konference v Locarnu (Alena Mikulášová) S. 533
LYSÝ Miroslav, Moravania, Mojmírovci a Franská ríša (Adriana Švecová) S. 537
HRABOVEC Emília, Slovensko a Svätá stolica 1918 – 1927 vo svetle vatikánskych prameňov (Bohumila Ferenčuhová) S. 541
SCHVARC Michal – HALLON Ľudovít, Kauza Karvaš (Ivan Kamenec) S. 543
KŘESŤAN Jiří, Zdeněk Nejedlý (Miroslav Michela) S. 545
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK