Year: 2015, vol: 63, number: 4
OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Poznej své (ne)přátele: Češi o osmanských Turcích na přelomu 19. a 20. století
(Know your friends/foes: Czechs on the Ottoman Turks in the late 19th and early 20th centuries)
The article presents images of the Turks in the Czech environment and their development in the last half century of the existence of the Ottoman Empire, namely from the 1870s to 1923. It analyses works that reacted to the Balkan uprisings and Russo – Turkish War of the 1870s, travel reports and literature written after the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina and briefly outlines the view of the Turks in scholarly literature, especially the emerging Oriental or Turkish studies. Attitudes to the Turks are placed in the context of relations with other ethnic and religious groups. The article points to the stereotypes and Orientalist ideas we encounter in works with Turkish themes.
Image of the Turks. Ottoman Empire. Orientalism. Czech Turkology. Popular writing. Travel literature.
Maďarská komunistická emigrácia a jej pôsobenie v rokoch 1919 – 1921
(The Hungarian communist exiles and their activities, 1919–1921)
The study is concerned with the activities of the Hungarian communist exiles in the period immediately following the fall of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in summer 1919. The term Hungarian communist exiles designates the specific ethno-political group composed of representatives and adherents of the fallen regime, who left Hungary after their military defeat and engaged in organizing the communist movement in other countries. They became important figures in building up the communist movement in Central Europe, especially in the former territories of the Kingdom of Hungary. Study of the broad theme is limited to the transmission of the communist ideolo-gy, organizing of the communist movement and the movement and activity of members of the Hungarian communist exile group in the Central European region, Czechoslovakia and especially Slovakia in the years of the so-called revolutionary wave, namely 1919 – 1921.
Hungarian communist exiles. Communist movement. Third Communist Internationale. Communist Party of Hungary. Marxist left. Slovakia. Transfer of ideologies. Frontiers.
Romania’s attitude concerning CMEA specialization (1960–1962). New assessments
Is it worth exporting corn and fodder in exchange for toys and cosmetics? It was a question Gheorghiu-Dej of Romania asked himself, when confronted with increasing East German demands for agricultural exports. He was keen on overcoming underdevelopment through a vast program of industrialization in order to overcome the status of a predominantly agricultural country but he perceived his CMEA partners to be opposing this prospect. In the context of increasing economic difficulties in the Soviet bloc in the early 1960s, an idea was circulated that specialization would help increase efficiency so that Socialist countries could successfully compete on Western markets. But the meaning of specialization appeared different for each country: Gheorghiu-Dej thought that Romania deserved an equal status with other more developed nations of the Soviet bloc, but it soon became clear to him that they had different views. His perception was that the East Germans and Czechoslovaks wanted Romania to remain a provider of agricultural products and hold off its industrialization plans, but he could not accept that. This study argues that intra-CMEA competition between developed and less developed member countries played a major role in compromising the reforms planed by Moscow in the early 1960s.
CMEA. Specialization. Socialist integration. Reform. Industrialization. Romania. GDR. Competition.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
IVANIČ Peter – LUKÁČOVÁ Martina
Svätý Metod na misijných a diplomatických cestách (Historicko-geografické súvislosti)
(Saint Methodius on missionary and diplomatic journeys (The historical geographical connections))
Saint Methodius, a native of Thessalonica, was not only one of the leading Christian missionaries and diplomats of the 9th century, but also an active traveller. He undertook several missionary and diplomatic journeys, which are mentioned in contemporary sources. The paper analyses his journeys to the Khazars, Great Moravia, Rome and finally in 881 to Byzantium. We trace the possible routes and the times it would have taken for Methodius to complete the journeys.
Saint Methodius. Byzantium. Great Moravia. Travel. Journeys.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Historiografia v Historickom ústave SAV v rokoch 2013 – 2014
(Historiography in the Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2013–2014)
As in previous years, the aim of the study for 2013-2014 was to grasp the publication activity of the researchers of the Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. The study maps all the book publications or expert academic monographs, whether collective or individual, festschifts and volumes of conference papers, editions of sources, syntheses, multi-volume encyclopedic or dictionary works, secondary school textbooks and other popularizing books. The most important results of the research work by authors from the institute are the publications from projects financially supported by the scientific grant agencies (Centre for Excellence of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Agency for Research and Development, Grant agency of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic VEGA). During this period, the authors covered various periods and themes, especially political, economic and social, but also subjects from environmental and cultural history, as well as individual biographies. The study is based on the record of the publication activity of the institute. Its content corresponds to the directive of the Slovak Academy of Sciences no. 303/A/2015 on the recording and classification of publication activity and its reception.
Historiography. Slovakia. Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. Academic research. grant projects.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
ZAVACKÁ Katarína, K článku Jána Drga Legislatívne vymedzenie pojmu Žid v II. Česko-Slovenskej republike, I. Slovenskej republike a Protektoráte Čechy a Morava v rokoch 1938 – 1942 S. 679
Slovenská historiografia 2013 (Alžbeta Sedliaková) S. 721
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
KÓNYA Peter a kol., Dejiny Uhorska (1000 – 1918) (Eva Benková) S. 689
PROKŠ Petr, Diplomacie a „Velká válka“ 1914 – 1918/1919 (Pavol Petruf) S. 692
DUCHÁČEK Milan, Václav Chaloupecký (Adam Hudek) S. 697
VARINSKÝ Vladimír, Kapitoly z dejín kolektivizácie na Slovensku (1948 – 1960) (Viera Hlavová) S. 701
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK